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The information below is taken from various archives, we try to use original source documents whenever possible. We would always advise researching the archives yourself as many websites and authors rely on the ‘everybody knows’ version of history which, since many archives have become more accessible, has proved to be very unreliable.

There is a link to the Irish Military Archive on the link headed The Civil War in the left hand menu bar.  

On the 7th of July 1922 Cathal Brugha died as a result of wounds received in a gun battle on O’Connell Street. On the 5th of July while Brugha as part of a small rear guard of Anti Treaty Forces he ordered his men to surrender although he refused to surrender himself. He approached Free State troop brandishing a revolver and was wounded in the leg severing a major artery, he bled to death. Elected as an anti treaty TD he died before the Dail assembled, he is buried in Glasnevin Cemetery and is also commemorated on the Republican Memorial in Glasnevin Cemetery.


Patrick O'Brien Volunteer, C Company, 4th Battalion, Dublin Brigade, Irish Volunteers. Born in 1899 died on the 11th of July 1922, aged about 17 years old during the Rising. Fought at Jameson Distillery, Marrowbone Lane. He went on to serve as Company Officer Commanding, C Company, 4th Battalion, Dublin Brigade, I.R.A. and as Garrison Officer Commanding Four Courts when he took the Anti-Treaty side in the Civil War. During the attack on the Four Courts he was injured sometime between the 28th and the 30th of June 1922 receiving shrapnel wound to the head and leg and a bullet wound to the chest. He was injured again during an engagement with National Army forces at Enniscorthy County Wexford on about the 4th of July 1922 receiving another bullet wound to the chest, he died at the Wexford County Home, Enniscorthy from wounds received on the 11th of July 1922.  


On the 17th of July 1922 Anti-Treaty I.R.A. Captain Séan O’Halloran was killed when fighting Free State Troops at Bunahowe between Gort and Ennis County Clare.

On the 26th of July 1922 a soldier of the Anti Treat army died from wounds received while fighting in Limerick City, the soldier was,
  • Patrick Foran a native of Lisselton County Kerry.

On Saturday the 29th of July 1922 two Anti-Treaty soldiers were killed in a shoot-out with Regular forces. At about 3am the Anti-Treaty forces advanced towards the village of Golden County Tipperary from the Cashel side in an armoured car. The armoured car came under machine gun fire from a party of regular troops led by Sergeant-Major Lennon of the National Army, two Anti-Treaty soldiers died and twenty others were taken prisoner. The two dead men were Kennedy and Quirke.

On Monday the 31st of July 1922 an Inquest was held into the death of an Anti Treaty soldier who was killed by National Army Troops, the dead man was part of a group who had tried to ambush the National Troops at Bracklong, Newport County Mayo. The dead man was named as:
  • Edward Hegarty.

On the 1st August 1922 Harry Boland was shot dead at the Grand Hotel, Skerries County Dublin. Boland had taken the Anti-Treaty side in the Civil War and was a prominent Anti-Treaty activist. He was shot by two Free State Army Officers and died two days later in St. Vincent’s Hospital. It was alleged that and is still believed now that Boland was shot by an assassination squad set up by Michael Collins and operating out of Oriel House Dublin.

On Wednesday the 2nd of August 1922 as National Army troops attacked Fenit from the sea attempting to land from the Lady Wicklow. The landing was successful and during the attack two soldiers of the Anti Treaty army were killed, the soldiers were,
  • Thomas Flynn a native of Fenit.
  • John O'Sullivan from Castlegregory.

On the 4th of August 1922 a soldier of the Anti Treaty army died of wounds he received while fighting in Bruree County Limerick on the 26th of July. He was,
  • Charles Hanlon of Listowel County Kerry.

On the 5th of August 1922 a young Anti Treaty Fianna member was shot dead by National Army troops as he monitored their movements from the Earl Desmond Hotel in Tralee, he was spotted by a soldier of the National Army and shot dead, he was more than likely unarmed. He was,
  • Michael Reidy, aged 17 and from Ballymacelligott County Kerry.


On the 6th of August 1922 Anti-Treaty I.R.A. men Volunteer John O’Gorman and Lieutenant John McSweeney were both fatally injured while attacking Free State Troops garrisoned in Kildysart Barracks County Clare. O’Gorman died on the 11th of August and McSweeney died in early September.

On the 7th August 1922 Joseph (Joe) Hudson aged 20 who lived at Adelaide Road, Glasthule, Dun Laoghaire, was in command of a small group of ten IRA volunteers in the area. They were proving to be very successful locally against the Free State Army. His group covered an area from Bray across to Deans Grange. Acting on information received a group of Free State Army officers raided a meeting which was in progress in Hudson's home. The officers, in two cars, pulled up near Hudson's house, but a Fianna boy on sentry duty blew his whistle to alert those inside. The occupants of the house scattered through the back garden as shots were exchanged. Hudson was injured and he dropped his weapon. One of the Free State Officers shot him at point-blank range as he lay on the ground, he died next day in St, Michael’s Hospital Dun Laoghaire, but not before he gave a death-bed declaration that he had had his hands up when shot.


On the 10th of August 1922 two men were hanged in Wandsworth Prison London for the murder of Chief of the Imperial General Staff of the Army Sir Henry Wilson who was believed to be the main instigator of the pogroms against Nationalists in Northern Ireland, he was Military Advisor to the Northern Irish Parliament under James Craig. The two men were.

  • Joseph O’Sullivan aged 25, born in London of Irish parents. O’Sullivan had served in WW1 with the Munster Fusiliers and had lost his leg below the knee in the fighting at Ypres Belgium. He was employed as a clerk in Whitehall and joined the London Brigade of the I.R.A. in 1919.
  • Reginald Dunne, aged 24, born in England of Irish parents, he joined the British Army and fought with the Irish Guards in France. After leaving the Army he studied to become a teacher and had also joined the London Brigade of the I.R.A. in 1919 and rose through the ranks to become second-in-command.

They succeeded in killing Sir Henry Wilson but in their attempts to escape their getaway car failed to show and both men were chased by a crowd of civilians and police, on reaching Ebury Street about half a mile from when the assassination had taken place they were cornered by the crowd who almost beat them to death, they also shot a policeman dead while attempting to flee capture.

Both men a commemorated on the memorial in the Republican Plot at Dean’s Grange Cemetery Dublin, their bodies, which were buried in Wandsworth Prison were returned to Ireland and buried in the Republican Plot in 1967.

On the 12th of August 1922 Joseph ‘Sonny’ Hudson of the Anti Treaty Army was shot dead at his home in Glasthuel Dun Laoghaire County Dublin. He was an active Anti Treaty Soldier on leave, with two other he was attempting to repair a broken revolver when interrupted by a Free State Army patrol accompanied by two C.I.D. Detectives. After fleeing the house Hudson returned to retrieve the revolver when he was shot by the two detectives. He was mortally wounded and taken to St. Michael’s Hospital Dun Laoghaire. Before he died he made a statement he was shot after he surrendered. The inquest into his death returned a verdict of gunshot wounds inflicted in the course of military operations by the Free State Army.

On Monday the 14th of August 1922 an Anti Treaty soldier was killed when a mine he was planting at Nenagh Barracks exploded prematurely. The dead man was named as:
  • James Nolan, a 32 year old father of one from Kenyon Street Nenagh.

On Saturday the 26th of August 1922 in Yellow Lane near The Thatch Public House in Swords County Dublin two members of Na Fianna Éireann were shot dead by a group of six men. At the inquest allegations were made that the two were assassinated by the National Army who had a policy carrying out such acts against known Anti Treaty activists. It was also alleged at the inquest that the Anti Treaty movement had a policy of assassinating supporters who wished to leave their movement. It was alleged during the inquest that Cole had suggested he wished to leave Fianna Éireann. The two were named as:
  • John (Sean) Cole Commandant 2nd Battalion Dublin Brigade Fianna Éireann, 19 years old of Buckingham Street Dublin.
  • Alfred Colley Vice Commandant 2nd battalion Dublin Brigade Fianna Éireann 21 years old of Parnell Street Dublin.
About half an hour later on the same day another know Anti Treaty activist was shot, the dead man was:
  • Bernard Daly, 26 years old and a grocer’s assistant.
Daly had been a member of the Volunteers since 1916 and a member of the IRA up to his death.

On the 30th of August forces of the National Army engage Anti-treaty forces in Bantry County Cork. Four soldiers of the Anti-treaty Army are killed in various engagements around Bantry.
  • On the night of 30 August 1922, Anti-Treaty forces under the command of Brigadier Commandant Gibbs Ross, attacked Bantry Post Office. During the engagement Ross was shot in the head, and died shortly after.
  • Captain Patrick Cooney from Bridge Street Skibbereen.
  • Lieutenant Donal McCarthy from Carrigbawn Drinagh.
  • Lieutenant Michael Crowley from Reenogreena Glandore

On Friday the 1st of September a soldier of the Anti Treaty Army was killed when he tried to disarm the commanding officer of a National Army raiding party at the Locomotive Department of the Great Southern and Western Railway in Limerick. The dead man was named as:
  • Harry Brazier.

On the 2nd of September 1922 John Stephens, a member of the Anti Treaty forces, was removed by three armed men form a house he was lodging in at Gardiner Place Dublin. Several hours later John Stephens was found mortally wounded near Blackhorse Bridge. He was taken to Dr. Steeven’s Hospital where he died from his wounds later that day.
On Saturday the 2nd of September 1922 two Anti Treaty soldiers were shot dead in a raid at Newpark Lodge Stillorgan Road County Dublin. The two dead men were named as:
  • Edward Leo Murray 19 years old of 1 Charlemont Avenue Kingstown, ex National Army Soldier.
  • Charles Joachim Murphy known as ‘Rodney’, 22 years old of Dean’s Grange County Dublin.

On Monday the 4th of September 1922 a party of National Army troops under Commandant-General Hannigan surprised a large group of Anti Treaty troops preparing an ambush Clenaconane County Limerick. An office of the Anti Treaty troops was killed in the ensuing battle.
  • D Finnich, Adjutant Number 2 Cork brigade.

Anti-Treaty Captain Timothy Kennefick is abducted from his home in Cork city by Free State troops, his body was found dumped near Macroom County Cork. His name is also recorded as Kenefick.
On Tuesday the 12th of September 1922 a 21 year old medical student was admitted to the Adelaide Hospital having suffer gunshot wound in an incident on bridge Street Dublin City. The young man died in a scuffle with National Army troops after he tried to escape from detention. The man was named as:
  • Sean McEvoy of 2 Ashbrooke Terrace, Leeson Street Dublin.

Sean McEvoy is buried in Glasnevin Cemetery, the dedication to him on the family headstone reads

and my fond and only son

SEÁN McEVOY, A.S.U., Capt. 4th Batt, D.B.I.R.A.

who died for Ireland

(at Bishop St) 12th Sep. 1922, aged 21 years.


Commandant Patrick Michael Mannion from County Mayo, know to his friends as Mayo. He took the Anti Treaty side in the Civil War. While taking part in a planned attack on the Headquarters of the Free State Army Intelligence Section at Oriel House Westland Row on the 17th of September 1922. The attack was thwarted by the Free State Army and while walking near Mount Street bridge Mannion with two other Anti Treaty soldiers was challenged by troops of the Free State Army. Mannion was wounded in the leg and captured by the Free State Troops, he was dragged to the corner of Clanwilliam Place by a Free State Officer and shot in the back of the head. The inquest into the death of Patrick Mannion returned a verdict of Wilful Murder. Patrick Mannion was buried in the Family plot in Dean’s grange Cemetery, his inscription is on the side panel of the large Celtic Cross and reads:


Patrick Mannion’s father was an ex-Dublin metropolitan Police inspector.


After heavy fighting in the North Sligo area 6 Anti-Treaty Volunteers were found dead on Belbulben Mountain. For several days the Free State Army engaged the Anti-Treaty forces, it was during these engagement the Anti-Treaty forces used and were forced to abandon the Ballinalee Armoured Car. Accounts of how the Anti-Treaty Volunteers died differ, the Free State Army account state that the six were killed in gun battles while the Anti-Treaty side claim that at least three if not all were taken prisoner and executed.

Division Adjutant Brian MacNeill, from Dublin, second son of Eoin MacNeill Minister for Education.

Brigadier Seamus Devins T.D.

He took an active part in the War of Independence, his house was burned to the ground by the Black and Tan and he also served time in Dartmoor Prison for his I.R.A. activities.

Captain Harry Benson. The body of Thomas Langan along with the body of Harry Benson were found near Ballinatrillick on the morning of the 2nd of October 1922.

Lieutenant Patrick (Paddy) Carroll. He was employed as a motor mechanic, his brother was a sergeant in the National Army.

Volunteer Joseph Banks. Patrick Joseph Banks died on 20 September 1922 near Mount Benbulben at Lislahelly, County Sligo from the effects of bullet wounds received from National Army forces. He was 18 years old at the time and had served with Fianna Eireann.

Volunteer Thomas Langan. The body of Thomas Langan along with the body of Harry Benson were found near Ballinatrillick on the morning of the 2nd of October 1922.

On the 22nd of September 1922 the body of Anti-Treaty Volunteer Michael Neville, a native of Lisdoonvarna County Clare, was found in a disused graveyard in Killester County Dublin. He was a member of the Dublin City Brigade and had been killed while in the custody of the Criminal Investigation Department (C.I.D.) of the Civic Guard in Oriel House. The C.I.D. were better known as the Oriel House Gang. Three men entered Mooney’s Public House Eden Quay Dublin and abducted the barman Michael Nevill aged 23. Mooney’s body was found the next day in a disused graveyard in Killester . Witnesses told the inquest that three men had entered the public house and ‘arrested’ Nevill, witnesses for the Civic Guard told the inquest that no one connected with the Civic Guard had anything to do with the shooting and Nevill was not arrested by them. Doctor G. Meldon told the inquest he found a number of bullet wounds on the victim including lacerations to the lungs, liver and brain and the victim also had a fractured skull, death was due to shock and haemorrhage.

On Wednesday the 27th of September 1922 an Anti Treaty soldier in the custody of the National Army was fatally wounded when the convoy holding him prisoner was ambushed at Brennan’s Glen, near Farranfore County Kerry. The dead soldier was,
  • Bertie Murphy, aged 17 and a native of Farrenfore County Kerry.
It was alleged by Anti Treaty forces that Bertie Murphy was in custody in the Dublin Guard’s Headquarters at the Great Southern Hotel having been arrested earlier on the 27 of September and that he was tortured and shot because he refused to give any information on those responsible for the Farrenfore ambush.

On Thursday the 28th of September 1922 an Anti Treaty soldier was shot dead when attempting to ambush National Army forces two miles outside Cork City, the dead man’s name was:
  • Sean O’Donoghue acting O C (Officer Commanding) Cork 1st Brigade, it was reported that O’Donoghue was one of 39 prisoners recently escaped from Cork Jail.

On the 30th of September 1922 a soldier of the Anti Treaty army was shoot by troops of the National Army in Ballyseedy Wood County Kerry. The Anti Treaty soldier was allegedly responsible for the death of National Army Captain Burke who had died in an ambush a month earlier. The soldier was,
  • John Galvin a native of Killorglin County Kerry.
There were two versions of the death of Galvin, the National Army alleges he was killed when the convoy transporting him came under attack from Anti Treaty forces, the Anti Treaty side alleged he was executed for killing Captain Burke.

On the 3rd of October 1922 a soldier of the Anti Treaty army died as a result of wounds he received in what was know as the Battle of Killorglin, he was,
  • Jeremiah Keating a native of Cahirciveen.

On the 6th of October 1922 Anti-Treaty Lieutenant Michael J. Keane from Gortglass County Clare was killed in action during an ambush on a Free State Army convoy near Tullycrine.

On the 6th of October 1922 three young men were arrested in Drumcondra County Dublin for putting up Anti Treaty Republican posters, they were taken to Wellington Barracks where they were interrogated and released. Details as to what happened after their release are sketchy but the three were found dead the next day at the Red Cow Clondalkin, the three were:
  • Edwin Hughes aged 17, 107 Clonliffe Road Drumcondra, County Dublin.
  • Brendan Holohan aged 17, 49 Patrick’s Road Drumcondra County Dublin.
  • Joseph Rogers aged 16, 2 St. Brigid’s Road Drumcondra, County Dublin. He was the son of well know Dublin Bookmaker Mr. Thomas Rodgers, he had served two years of his apprenticeship as a mechanical engineer.

On Sunday the 8th of October 1922 a man was shot dead by the Royal Ulster Constabulary when he was involved in trying to ambush five members of that force. The incident happened along the road at Cargaclogher County Armagh. The policemen returned fire killing the man who was named as:
  • Terrance Watters, aged 20 and from Loughbratty County Monaghan.

At 1:30am of Monday the 9th of October 1922 a man was shot dead by National Army Troops when he fled from a pony and trap when stopped, the man, a passenger in the pony and trap, refused to stop when challenged and was shot through the lung. A subsequent search of the trap and driver uncovered a revolver and a quantity of bullets. The dead man was named as:
  • John Halpenny (or Halpin) aged about 26, a farm labourer from Moira Castle a town land just beyond the County Armagh border.

On Tuesday the 10th of October 1922 a prisoner and three soldier of the National Army were killed when Anti Treaty prisoners attempted a break-out from Mountjoy Jail Dublin. The prisoner was Padar Breslin of Mount Temple Road Dublin. The inquest into his death found he died from shock and haemorrhage caused by bullets fired by persons unknown.

On the 12th of October 1922 three Anti Treaty Troops were shot dead near the village of Upton County Cork. The men died when they attempted to cut off a small National Army out-post but were surprised by a larger force of national Army Troops, the three dead men were named as:
  • Patrick Pearce of Barrack Street Kinsale.
  • D. L. O’Sullivan also of barrack Street Kinsale.
  • An 18 year old identified as Hayes of Bandon.

The Irish Times reported on the 14th of October 1922 that a member of the Anti Treaty forces named Donovan was killed when several tons of masonry fell on him when he removed the keystone while destroying Timaleague bridge County Cork.

On Sunday the 22nd of October 1922 Anti-Treaty Volunteer Daniel O’Halloran aged 34 was killed in an ambush on Free State troops at Carrigaloe County Cork. A Lieutenant of the National Army gave evidence at the inquest that he had left Queenstown at 9.30 to visit troops at Belvally and on his return journey a bomb was thrown at the car he was travelling in, one of the men in the car was wounded. On reaching Queenstown the Lieutenant got some reinforcements and returned to the scene of the ambush. When they returned fire was opened on them which they returned. During this exchange of fire O’Halloran was killed. O’Halloran’s brother stated at the inquest ‘he was probably killed in armed opposition to the National Forces’ and added ‘he was killed in a fair fight.’

On the 25th of October 1922 an officer and two soldiers of the Anti-Treaty forces were walking towards Fossa, as they passed a dug-out which was under surveillance by the National Army they were fired on, the Anti-Treaty Officer was killed in the attack, he was,
  • Captain Michael Ahern of Glencar, Killorglin.

On the 25th of October 1922 a National Army cycle patrol happened upon a group of Anti-Treaty Forces three mile from Killorglin County Kerry, the Anti-Treaty Forces were unloading supplies from a boot on the river Laune. In the ensuing battle one Anti-Treaty soldier was killed, he was,
  • William O’Riordan from Glenbeigh County Kerry.

On Thursday the 26th of October 1922 a soldier of the Anti Treaty forces was shot dead while trying to escape from troops of the National Army, the incident happened Donohill County Tipperary. The dead soldier was named as:
  • Commandant Dalton.

On Friday the 27th of October 1922 a soldier of the Anti Treaty Forces was killed in an exchange of fire with National Army Forces at Tonevane near Castlegregory County Kerry. He was,
  • William Myles from Tralee County Kerry.
It was alleged that Myles had been captured by National Army troops earlier that day and was executed as a reprisal for the death of a National Army soldier, Private Nagle, who was killed in the exchange of fire.

On Tuesday the 31st of October a soldier of the Anti Treaty Army was executed by the National Army for his part in a battle which took place the Glen Farm at Ballyheigue. Troops of the National Army had surrounded a party of Anti Treaty troops, the Anti Treaty troops but up such fierce resistance that the National Army brought in an eighteen-pounder field-gun. The executed soldier was named as,
  • John Lawlor, aged 23 and from Ballyheigue.
Lawlor was severely wounded in the battle but his actions in staying behind to provide covering fire for the retreating Anti Treaty forces enabled the rest of the Anti Treaty troops to escape.

On the 2nd of November 1922 a wounded soldier of the Anti Treaty forces was taking refuge in a farm house at Knockanes when found by National Army troops, the wounded man was dragged from the house and shot dead, he was,
  • Michael O’Sullivan from Cloghane County Kerry.

Francis Michael Power was killed in an attack on the home of Richard Mulcahy on the 2nd of November 1922. The Free State government had introduced a law under the Emergency Powers Act to execute anyone found in possession of arms or ammunition, the attack on Mulcahy by Anti Treaty forces was in reprisal for this policy. Francis Michael Power was 22 years old and from Nenagh County Tipperary and in Dublin studying as a medical student at Saint Vincent’s Hospital. The Free State Army refused to release the remains of Francis Power for burial, on the 4th of November members of the Anti Treaty forces broke into the morgue and removed the body, he was buried on the 5th of November in the family plot in Dean’s Grange Cemetery Dublin.

On the 5th November 1922 James (Jim) Spain took part in the large-scale attack on the Free State Army at Wellington Barracks, South Circular Road, Dublin. He was wounded and made his way to a house on Donore Avenue. He was dragged out of the house by Free State soldiers and shot dead, he was unarmed.

On Friday the 17th of November 1922 the following were executed in Dublin, all were found guilty by a Military Court Martial of being in procession of a revolver without authority and sentenced to death, all were executed at 7am.
  • James Fisher, aged about 18 and an employee of Ruddell’s Cigarette factory in James’s Street Dublin. He was arrested on the 23rd of October.
  • Richard Towhig, aged about 21 of 1 Connors’ Buildings (off James’s Street harbour), his trial was on the 23rd of October, he was arrested on the 23rd of October on Catherine Street Dublin. He was employed at the Inchicore Works of the Great Southern and Western Railway. His father had been Killed in Action in the First World War.
  • John Gaffney, aged 21 of 3 Usher’s Quay Dublin, he was arrested on the 28th of October and his trial was held on the 9th of November, he was employed by the electric light department of the Dublin Corporation.
  • Peter Cassidy, 21 years old of 7 Usher’s Quay Dublin, was arrested on the 28th of October and his trial was held on the 9th of November. He was employed by the electric light department of Dublin corporation.


On Saturday the 18th of November four Anti-Treaty I.R.A. were killed on the Naas Road just outside Inchicore in Dublin. Eyewitnesses stated that a group of up to ten men were seen carrying a heavy article from a field near Blackhorse Bridge, witnesses described a bang louder than any thunder and a terrific flash that lit the night sky like it daylight. The incident happened just after 8pm. It later transpired the men were carrying a Mine which had exploded as it was being moved. Four I.R.A. men died in the explosion, they were:

  • Thomas Maguire, I.R.A. Captain, from Phibsboro Road, Dublin.
  • Bernard Curtis, aged 20, employed as an engine cleaner at Kingsbridge and from the Cottages, Bluebell, Dublin.
  • Patrick (Paddy) J Egan, employed as a goods clerk and from Ashbourne County Limerick. His body was returned to Limerick for burial.
  • Thomas Phelan, aged 22, employed as an engine cleaner at Kingsbridge and from Banteen, Galbally, County Limerick. He survived the initial explosion suffering severe injuries and considerable loss of blood and was removed to Steevens’ Hospital Dublin. His leg was amputated during the night in an effort to save his life but he died at 7.15am.

It was believe that the Mine was intended for use in an ambush of two lorry loads of National Army Troops returning to Baldonnel Aerodrome. Body parts were discovered 500 yards from the scene of the explosion and Post Office linesmen had the gruesome task of removing intestines from the telegraph wires. It was believed the ambush was intended as a reprisal for the execution of four I.R.A. men in Kilmainham Jail on the Friday the 17th of November 1922.

On the 20th of November 1922 a soldier of the Anti Treaty Army was shot dead when National Army Troops uncovered two dug-outs containing arms and provisions belonging to the Anti Treaty Troops during a search of the Dingle Cloghane area. The dead soldier was,
  • Michael Flynn a native of Tralee County Kerry.

On Friday the 24th of November 1922 Erskine Childers was executed at 7am in Dublin, he was tried and found guilty by a military court of being in possession of an automatic pistol without proper authority.

On the 25th of November 1922. William Graham was stopped by a Free State Army officer at Leeson Street Bridge. He was found to be carrying a revolver, which was taken from him. Reports differ on what happened next, some reports say Graham tried to escape while other reports say he was executed by the Officer who stopped him.

On Thursday the 30th of November 1922 the following Anti treaty soldiers were executed, after being found guilty by Court Martial. The executions took place in Dublin at 8.15am.
  • Joseph Spooner, 67 McCaffrey’s Estate Mount Brown Dublin City. Found guilty of having in his possession a revolver without proper authority at Erne Street Dublin on the 30th of October 1922.
  • Patrick Farrelly, 67 Chancery Lane Dublin, found guilty of possession of a bomb at Erne Street Dublin on the 30th of October 1922.
  • John Murphy, 56 Belview Buildings, Thomas Street Dublin. Found guilty of having in his possession two bombs at Earn Street Dublin on the 30th of October 1922.
Al three were arrested on the 30th of October after an attack on National Troops at Oriel House Dublin.


On Thursday the 9th of December Hugh O’Donnell was shot dead by National Army Troops during a round-up in the neighbourhoods of Glenbrohan and Kilfinane County Tipperary. Described as a youth who had not been in the Irregulars long.


On the 8th of December 1922 four Anti-Treaty Volunteers were executed by firing squad in Mountjoy Jail:

  • Rory O’Connor
  • Joseph McKelvey
  • Liam Mellows
  • Richard Barrett
The four were executed as a reprisal for the assignation of Brigadier-General Sean Hales TD who was shot dead on Ormond Quay Dublin on Thursday the 14th of December. The executions took place at Mountjoy at 9.20am at a spot at the rear of the prison. Three clergymen were in attendance and the prisoners were marched together to the execution spot. They were blindfolded and after the execution their bodies were buried within the grounds of Mountjoy. Rory O’Connor was a native of Monkstown County Dublin, he was about 40 years old and was a civil engineer and had worked for the Dublin Corporation. From a very young age he had been involved in politics, he was a member of the Constitutional Movement and was for a time chairman of the United Ireland League. On March 22nd 1922 he invited a number of Pressmen to the headquarters of the Anti-Treaty party in Suffolk Street Dublin and repudiated the Dail which he declared had “done an act which it has no moral right to do.” He was Commander-in-chief of the Four Courts Garrison and directed operations during the siege of the building. When the garrison surrendered he was taken prisoner.

Joseph McKelvey, Stewardstown County Tyrone, was commandant of the 1st Northern Division during the War of Independence. He took the Anti-Treaty side and was associated with the Belfast Boycott which was being enforced by the occupants of the Four Courts. He was arrested after the surrender of the Four Courts Garrison but escaped from Jameson’s Distillery with Ernie O’Malley, McKelvey was later recaptured. McKelvey was a boilermaker by trade and acted for a time as Liaison Officer at St. Mary’s Hall, Belfast. He was about 26 years old.

Liam Mellows, who was about 35 years old, he had been involved in the Volunteers for many years and in the early years of World War 1 was sentenced to a term in prison for Sedition. He was deported from Ireland but returned in time to take part in the 1916 Rising where he led the Rebels in Galway. After the Rising he escaped to America allegedly dressed as a Priest. He played a prominent part in the War of Independence. He was one of those in command in the siege of the Four Courts and was captured with the rest of the garrison. His brother Barney Mellows was one of the chiefs of Na Fianna Éireann.

Richard (Dick) Barrett, Ballineen County Cork, was captured with the Four Courts Garrison. He was a prominent and active member of the Anti-Treaty executive. He fought during the War of Independence.


On the 8th of December 1922 William Harrington was shot dead in Tralee County Kerry. Harrington joined the Irish Volunteers in 1918 and he was Intelligence Officer attached to D Company, 1st Battalion, Kerry Brigade at the time of his death. Harrington was in the Rink, Tralee collecting funds for IRA prisoners when the building was raided by National Forces Harringotn was shot by Lieutenant Parsons. Report of enquiry claims that funds were been raised for the poor of the district. No disciplinary action was taken against Parsons following the incident.


On Saturday the 9th of December the Irish Independent reported that a statement was issued by Army Headquarters said that an Irregular named J Carroll, Rahanna, Borris, was killed in an engagement with National Army Troops at Shangarry County Carlow. Another Irregular, J Toole was wounded and two other E Kane of Woodlands, Castledermot and H Rourke of Tinahely County Wicklow were captured.


On Tuesday the 19th of December 1922 seven men were executed in the Curragh Military Prison at 8.30am. A column of ten men had operated against railways, goods trains and shops in the vicinity of Kildare for some time. Five of them had apparently taken part in an attempt to disrupt communications by derailing engines on 11 December. Two engines had been taken from a shed at Kildare and one of them had been sent down the line into an obstruction at Cherryville, blocking the line. A goods train had been looted and shops robbed in the locality. The same column was also reported to have taken part in an ambush of Free State troops at the Curragh siding on 25 November. On Wednesday the 13th of December eight men were surprised in a dug-out at a farmhouse at Moore’s Bridge, about one and a half miles from the Curragh Camp, by Free State troops. In the dug-out were eight men, ten rifles, a quantity of ammunition and various items relating to bomb making. The men were arrested and taken to the Curragh. The woman owner of the farmhouse was also arrested and later detained in Mountjoy Prison. During the arrest on of the eight men one of them, Thomas Behan, had his arm broken by a blow from a Free State soldier’s rifle butt when he was being apprehended, when Behan was unable to mount the back of the truck which was to convey the eight men to the Curragh Camp he was struck again by a rifle butt on the head which caused his death.. The official version was that he was shot when attempting to escape from a hut in which he was detained in the Curragh Camp The seven men executed were:
  • Stephen White (18) Abbey St., Kildare
  • Joseph Johnston (18) Station Rd., Kildare
  • Patrick Mangan (22) Fair Green, Kildare
  • Patrick Nolan (24) Rathbride, Kildare
  • Brian Moore (37) Rathbride, Kildare
  • James O’Connor (24) Bansha, Co. Tipperary
  • Patrick Bagnall (19) Fair Green, Kildare
A memorial to the executed men was erected in Kildare Town.


Of Friday the 29th of December 1922 two men were executed in Kilkenny. Both men were arrested on the 13th of December at Bishopslough County Kilkenny, both were charged and found guilty of having a quantity of arms and ammunition and being involved in a raid on Shersoetown House. The two men were:

  • John Phelan of Thomastown County Kilkenny
  • John Murphy Bishopslough County Kilkenny

On the 29th of December 1922 Frank Lawlor, a known Anti Treaty I.R.A. was arrested by CID Detectives at a friend’s house in Ranelagh County Dublin. Nothing was heard of Lawlor until the 1st of January 1923 when his body was found on Orwell Road.


On the 6th of January 1923 an Anti-Treaty I.R.A. soldier, Michael Cull, was shot dead during a raid on Ovens’ hardware and grocery store in the village of Ballyconnell County Cavan, he was part of a large group of Anti-Treaty hiding out in the Arigna Mountains and raiding the local area for food and supplies. It was reported locally he was shot by two plain clothes Free State officers. The Anti-Treaty group from the Arigna Mountains raided Ballyconnell Village about a month later murdering two civilians.

On Monday the 8th of January 1923 five soldiers of the National Army were executed in Dublin, they had been charged, tried and convicted for:
  1. Treachery, on the 1st of December 1922 in that they at Leixlip assisted certain armed persons in using force against the National troops.
  2. Treacherously communicating and consorting with armed persons mentioned in the first charge, in the place and at the time mentioned.
The Court found each of the accused guilty of both charges, all were sentenced to death and the sentence was duly carried out at 8am on the 8th of January 1923.
  • Corporal Leo Dowling, Yew Tree House, Askinran, Carna, Curragh Camp.
  • Corporal Sylvester Heaney Dillonstown, Dunleer, County Louth.
  • Private Lawrence Sheeky Braytown, County Meath.
  • Private Anthony O’Reilly Simmonstown Celbridge, County Kildare.
  • Private Terence Brady Wilkinstown, Navan, County Meath.
On December the 1st a lorry carrying provisions to the National Army post at Maynooth was held up and burned and the occupants taken prisoner. When news of the attack reached Maynooth Lieutenant Ledwith and a small party of National troops hurried to the scene, contact was also made with other military stations in the area from which other National troops were dispatched. As Ledwith and his men marched across country to the scene they were ambushed, as they neared Grangewilliam House heavy rifle and machine-gun fire was opened on them. One of the National troops Private Moran was killed in this exchange. The National troops kept the ambushers on the defensive until other detachments of National troops arrived. The ambushers retreated and after a running gun-fight which lasted several hours the National troops surrounded the ambushers. 22 men were captured, among them the five executed men. The ambushers were fully equipped with rifles and Thompson and Lewis machine-guns.


On the 10th of January 1923 two Volunteers of the Anti-Treaty side were killed in Wexford. Part of a Flying-Column they were resting at Rossiter’s Farm when they were surrounded by a large force of Free State troops. Both men were members of the Murrintown Active Service Unit. The two Volunteers held off the Free State troops while the rest of the Flying-Column escaped, one Volunteer died at the scene while the other died from wounds later that day. The two men were:

Con McCarthy, unmarried, aged 24 and from the Murrintown area of County Wexford.

Bernie Radford, unmarried,  aged 23 and from the Murrintown area of County Wexford.

McCarthy died at the scene while Radford died that night in The County Hospital Wexford. Military Honours were rendered at their funerial in Murrintown cemetery.


On the 13th of January 1923 three Anti-treaty I.R.A. men were executed in Dundalk gaol, all three were executed by firing squad. The three were:

  • Thomas McKeown. Aged 26 he was a native of Piedmont County Louth. He was arrested charged and found guilty of being in possession of a revolver and 100 rounds of ammunition. Thomas McKeown was arrested at the house where he was born and which he shared with his mother and other family members, the family admitted there were two revolvers and a small quantity of ammunition found at the house but claimed the revolvers did not work and the ammunition found did not fit either of the revolvers.

  • John McNulty also known as Joseph Murphy. Born in Corromonnon County Louth, charges with being in possession of a revolver and 12 rounds of ammunition on the 9th of January 1923. He was found guilty by Military Court, executed three days later by firing squad.

  • Thomas Murray. Born in White Cross County Armagh. Found guilty of being in possession of a revolver and six rounds of ammunition.


The death sentences were carried out on five men on Monday the 15th of January 1923, all five had been found guilty and sentenced to death.

  • Frederick Burke, Ileigh, Borrisoleigh County Tipperary. Patrick Russell, Summerhill Borrisoleigh and Martin O’Shea, Garrangreena, Borrisoleigh were tried at Roscrea on January 2nd 1923 with having possession without proper authority 2 rifles and 85 rounds of ammunition and one Thompson gun with ammunition at Ross Cottage, near Borrisoleigh, on the 23rd of December 1922. The executions took place at Roscrea at 8am.

  • Patrick McNamara, Killary, Derry Castle, Nenagh was tried at Roscrea on the 23rd of December 1922 on a charge of having without proper authority one rifle and ammunition at Lansdowne House, Nenagh when apprehended by soldiers of the National Army. He was executed at 8am at Roscrea County Tipperary.

  • James Lillis, Chapel Street, Bagenalstown, County Carlow was tried at Dublin on the 12th of December charged with having in his possession without proper authority a rifle and taking part in an attack on National forces. He was executed at Carlow at 8am.

On Saturday the 20th of January 1923 four members of the Anti Treaty Army were executed at Ballymullen Barracks Tralee County Kerry. The four men were,
  • Michael Brosnan of Rathenny, Tralee, County Kerry.
  • John Clifford of Mountluke Caherciveen, County Kerry.
  • James Daly from Knock, Killarney, County Kerry.
  • James Hanlon of Causeway, Tralee, County Kerry.
Although the four men were tried and convicted of being in possession of arms and ammunition under the Emergency Powers Act it was widely believed the men were killed in reprisal for attacks on the railway system in Kerry.

On the 20th of January 1923 two Anti-Treaty I.R.A. men were executed at Limerick Jail, the two men were Commandant Con McMahon and Volunteer Patrick Hennessy. Both men were charged with the destruction of Ardsollus railway station on the 14th of January. Both men were found guilty of destruction of the station and being in possession of guns and ammunition. Patrick Hennessy was secretary of Clare County Gaelic Athletic Association and a member of the county team. Con McMahon had served a term in prison in Limerick Jail in 1920.


On the 20th of January 1923 5 Anti-Treaty I.R.A. men were executed in Custume Barracks Athlone. All were executed by firing squad, the executions taking place at about 8am. The five men were:

  • Thomas Hughes. From Bogginfin, Athlone. He was Lieutenant Commandant, Officer Commanding Munitions Western Division I.R.A., he had served as Captain with the 3rd Engineers Dublin Brigade and was also Officer Commanding Munitions Athlone.

  • Michael Walsh. Born in Derrymore County Galway. He was Vice-Commandant, 2nd Battalion No. 1 Brigade, Western Division.

  • Herbert Collins. A native of Kickeen, Headford, County Galway. Captured at Currahan charged with being in possession of arms and ammunition.

  • Stephen Joyce. A native of Derrymore, Caherlistrane, County Galway.

  • Martin Burke. A native of Caherlistrane, County Galway. He was Officer Commanding, Active Service Unit, Number 3 Brigade, Western Division. He was captured at Dowdallshill.

On Monday the 22nd of January 1923 three men were executed by firing squad at Dundalk at 8am. The three were charged and found guilty of having arms and ammunition in their possession without proper authority.
  • James Melia aged 20 of 2 Bridge Street Dundalk
  • Thomas Lennon aged 19 Dowdallshill Dundalk
  • Joseph Ferguson aged 27 of Giles Quay, Bellurgan, Dundalk.

Two men were executed by the National Army on the 25th of January 1923 at Waterford. Both had been found guilty of procession of Arms and Ammunition at Ballinaclash, Clashmore, County Waterford.
  • Michael Fitzgerald, South Main Street, Youghal County Cork.
  • Patrick O’Reilly, Coastguard Station Youghal, County Cork.
Both men were executed at 8am at the Infantry Barracks.

The following were executed Saturday the 27th of January 1923.
  • Patrick Geraghty, Rochfordbridge, Mullingar, County Westmeath. Guilty of procession of an automatic pistol at Cogan County Offaly on the 10th of November 1922, tried on the 5th of January 1923.
  • Joseph Byrne, Cruithdangan County Offaly. Guilty of procession of an Webley Revolver at Cogan County Offaly on the 10th of November 1922, tried on the 5th of January 1923.
Both men were executed at Portlaoighise (Maryborough) at 8am. The following three men were executed at Birr County Offaly, all three had been found guilty by Court Martial of procession of Arms and Ammunition. The executions took place at 8am. All three came from Birr.
  • Patrick Cunningham aged 22 years.
  • William Conroy aged 20 years.
  • Colm Kelly aged 18 years.

A soldier of the Anti Treaty forces was killed on the 28th of January 1923 while ambushing troops of the National Army at Feale’s Bridge, Kilmainham, Brosna County Kerry. He was,
  • Denis O’Connor from Brosna County Kerry.

On Monday the 5th of February 1923 Nicholas Murphy, Enniscorthy, was shot dead during an attack on the guard at 125 Leinster Road, Dublin. An unarmed sentry challenged 4 men who approached 125 Leinster Road, the four men, one of which was Murphy, produced revolvers. Shots were fired at the sentry who was hit in the leg, another soldier who was on guard and armed returned fire. A sergeant-major who was Officer Commanding the guard and who was patrolling the area saw the incident and fired on the four men hitting Murphy in the neck. The men fled down Grosvenor Place and up Effra Road. The injured attacker was later found at 7 Effra Road bleeding from his wounds, he was taken by ambulance under escort to the Meath Hospital where he died early Tuesday morning from his wounds.

On the night of the 13th of February 1923 two young soldiers of the Anti Treaty forces were shot dead by the National Army in the hayshed of Lyon’s Farm Curraghane County Kerry. The two were,
  • James O’Connor, 19 years old and a native of Tralee County Kerry.
  • Michael Sinnott, aged 18.


On Saturday the 17th of February James St. John was shot dead by National Army Troops at Kilcooley, Thurles, County Tipperary. His remains were identified by Bridie Purcell, aged 17, and a member of Cumann na mBan. Four men were seen running from a house, they were called on to halt but failed to do so, the National Army opened fire. St. John was found dying on the road, he was armed with a rifle, the magazine loaded with five rounds.

On the 18th of February 1923 an Anti Treaty soldier was shot dead when he attempted to escape national Army custody, according to National Army reports the prisoner attempted to take an officers gun and was shot in the struggle, he was,
  • Thomas O'Sullivan from Ballyferriter.

The funereal took place of two Anti Treaty officers killed in an encounter with national Army Troops in the Glen of Aherlow:
  • Brigadier-General Denis Lacey.
  • Patrick McDonagh, aged 24
Both were buried in the same grave in the Republican Plot of Tipperary Cemetery.

Two Anti Treaty soldiers were killed when troops from the National Army exploded a mine to seal a dug-out in the Arigna Mountains County Leitrim on Wednesday the 28th of February 1923. The two men were named as:
  • James Cull
  • Patrick Tynan.

On Tuesday the 6th of March 1923 an Anti Treaty soldier was killed near Gleesk County Kerry, he was,
  • Sean T. O’Sullivan a native of Cahirciveen County Kerry.


Anti-Treaty I.R.A. Volunteer Edward Cowman of The Leap Davidstown County Wexford died when he accidently shot himself at Brennan’s Farm. He is buried in Davidstown Cemetery.


On the 7th of March 1923 the following eight Anti Treaty forces were killed when while being held prisoner by the National Army were forced to clear an obstruction across Ballyseedy Bridge between Tralee and Killorglin County Kerry. A trip-mine concealed in the obstruction exploded killing the men who were:


  • John Daly, Woodview, Ahaneboy, Castleisland, County Kerry. He worked on his father’s farm and at the time of his death was Section Commander, 7th Battalion, 2nd Kerry Brigade I.R.A. During the War of Independence he served as Volunteer, 1st Battalion, 1st Kerry Brigade, I.R.A. He was a member of the I.R.A. since 1917.

  • Patrick Hartnett Listowel County Kerry. At the time of his death he was Officer Commanding, Finuge Company, 6th Battalion, 1st Kerry Brigade, I.R.A. He was a member of the Volunteers I.R.A. since 1916.

  • Patrick Buckley, Scartaglin, County Kerry. At the time of his death he was a member of an I.R.A. Active Service Unit (Flying Column) and during the War of Independence had served as Company Instructor and Battalion Police Officer, he had been a member of the I.R.A. since at least 1920.

  • James Walsh, Tralee. Born in 1890, he was a Captain with the 1st Kerry Brigade I.R.A. His brother Daniel Walsh was an internee at the Curragh Camp, Kildare in 1923.

  • George O'Shea, Lixnaw. Born in 1894 and was Company Captain with the 1st Kerry Brigade at the time of his death. He was employed as a Road Contractor.

  • Timothy Towmey, Lixnaw.

  • John O’Connor, the address give on his marriage certificate and of his widow is Liverpool, his father was from Innishannon County Cork. He was married with two children. On one of his daughter’s birth certificate he is recorded as ex-Royal Navy. He served with the I.R.A. during the War of Independence and was involved in the transportation of arms and ammunition between the United States of America, England and Ireland on behalf of the I.R.A. and continued arms importation for the Anti-Treaty I.R.A. during the Civil War. He was arrested at Fenit, County Kerry by National Forces and was being held prisoner at Tralee prior to his death.

  • Michael O’Connell, Castleisland County Kerry. He was serving with the 7th Battalion (Castleisland Battalion), 1st Kerry Brigade at the time of his death. He was a member of the I.R.A. since 1920 and had served with 1st Battalion (Castleisland Battalion), 2nd Kerry Brigade during the War of Independence.

Three National Army soldiers were injured in the explosion Captain Edward Breslin, Lieutenant Joseph Murtagh and Sergeant Ennis. Injuries received by Murtagh and Ennis were described as serious.


Another similar obstruction was found on the Countess’s Bridge, Killarney, County Kerry on the same day. National Army troops used Anti Treaty prisoners to clear this obstruction and while doing so a trip-mine exploded killing four men:

  • Jeremiah O’Donoghue, new Street, Killarney.

  • Tim Murphy, Kilbrean, Kilcummin.

Stephen Buckley

  • Stephen Buckley, Tierboy, County Kerry. Born in 1892. He was a Lieutenant with the 2nd Kerry Brigade at the time of his death and had served with the 2nd Kerry Brigade during the War of Independence. He had been arrested by National Army on the 3rd of March 1923 along with his two brothers William and Timothy and all three taken to Killarney Barracks.

  • Daniel (Dan) Donoghue (O'Donoghue), Lacka, Kilcummin, County Kerry. Born in 1901 and employed as a farm labourer. At the time of his death he was Quarter Master with the 2nd Kerry Brigade I.R.A. and had served with the 2nd Kerry Brigade during the War of Independence. He was arrested by National Army on the 3rd of March 1923.

On Friday the 9th of March 1923 an Anti Treaty prisoner was killed while being transported from Killorglin to Tralee County Kerry. Although first named as Lawlor the prisoner was later identified as.
  • James Taylor of Glencar.
Official reports of the killing of James Taylor state he was shot while trying to escape but it is widely believed he was executed by the National Army. His brother Joseph Taylor was killed by Crown Forces on the 27th of February 1921.


On Sunday the 11th of March 1923 Anti-Treaty Irregular leader Francis (Frank) O’Grady was killed during a round-up in the Mountain Stage district of County Kerry. The National Army Troops surprised a group of Irregulars and during the ensuing gun-fight O’Grady was killed and nine Irregulars taken prisoner. The Anti-Treaty account of his death stated that Frank O’Grady was shot dead at Bahagh’s Workhouse while being held prisoner.


On the 10th of March 1923 a party of Anti-Treaty Irregulars raided the home of a man named Buggy of Ballyouskill near Ballyragget, County Kilkenny. Thomas Mealey was shot dead and another Irregular wounded, the Irregulars retreated leaving their dead comrade behind, his body was found the following morning, the deceased had a colt revolver in his hand.


On Monday the 12th of March 1923 a group of five Anti Treaty soldiers were killed at Caherciveen, County Kerry. The five men were:

  • Michael Courtney
  • Eugene Dwyer
  • Daniel O’Shea
  • Willie Riordan
  • John Sugrue

All five were members of the Kerry Number 3 brigade.

Accounts differ as to the circumstances of the five men deaths. In a statement issued by National Army G.H.Q. it was stated that in the course of operations troops from Caherciveen came across a barricade north-east of the town, fire was opened on the troops and a battle ensued lasting two hours. During this engagement seven Anti-Treaty forces were captured all carrying arms. The prisoners were ordered to clear the barricade, while doing so a trip-mine exploded killing five of the Anti-Treaty troops and wounding nine National Army troops including Commandant J. J. Delaney and Lieutenant W. McEaldy.

The Anti-Treaty side of the story was. On Monday the 12th of March 1923 a group of five Anti Treaty soldiers being held by the National Army at Bahagh’s Workhouse, Caherciveen, County Kerry, were taken by members of the Dublin Guard on the pretext of being transported to Tralee. The five were taken a short distance from the work house where they were shot in the legs to prevent them from escaping they were then placed on a barricade containing a land-mine which was then exploded killing all five.

On Monday the 12th of March 1923 Hugh Haughton aged 18 of 8 Hamilton Street Dublin employed as a carpenter with the Dublin United Tramway Company was fatally wounded when he and another youth attacked a National Army Commandant . The attack occurred at about 7.15pm while the Officer was walking from Donore Avenue towards Washington Street Dublin City. The Officer told the inquiry into Haughton’s death that he was approaching the corner of Washington Street he met two men walking towards him, the two men passed him but when he turned into Washington Street the same two men were about one pace behind him. The two men produced revolvers, the Officer had a short Webley revolver in his pocket and fired point-blank at the two men, the deceased man was hit in the chest. Both men fired on the Officer before fleeing over some waste ground, the injured man reached Hamilton Street where a neighbour summoned a priest. The inquiry found the deceased man was shot by a soldier of the National Army in self-defence.

On Tuesday the 13th of March 1921 William Healy of 52 Dublin Street, Blackpool, Cork. was executed in Cork, he had been convicted of attempting to burn the house of Mrs Powell a sister of the Late General Michael Collins. He was charged with conspiracy to murder a person in that he did on the night of March the 8th 1923 conspire to murder one Commandant P D Scott of the 10th Infantry Battalion Cork. He was also charged with encouraging persons to commit an offence specified in Section 2 Sub-Section B of General Regulations as to the trails of civilians by military courts, in that he did conspire and encourage persons to damage and destroy property by fire, to wit, the house of Mrs Powell, Blarney Street Cork. Further with aiding and abetting an attack on National forces at the same place being in possession of a revolver without proper permission. The execution took place at 8am.

On the same day James O’Rourke of Upper Gloucester Street Dublin was executed in Dublin, O’Rourke was captured by National Army troops while he was attempting to blow up Jury’s Hotel Dublin on the 21st of February. O’Rourke was charged and found guilty of taking part on an attack on members of the National Army in Jury’s Hotel, Dame Street, Dublin and further with having in his possession, without proper authority, 1 Webley .45 revolver and 13 rounds of ammunition. The execution took place at 8am.

On the same day Michael Greery and Luke Burke of Keady, County Armagh (Henry Keenan*, Newcastle County Down) were executed at Mullingar County Westmeath for raiding banks in Oldcastle County Meath. Both men were captured by Troops from Ceannanus Mor, Kells, County Meath. The executions took place at the Barracks, immediately the men fell Rev. J Kelly and Rev. J P Finegan rushed forward to administer Last Rites. They were charged with taking part in an armed raid on the Hibernian and Northern Banks, Oldcastle, on the 27th of February 1923 and with being in possession of £385 19s and 11d of stolen money. Both executions were carried out at 8am. *Initall reports stated the name of one of the executed as Henry Keenan but official documents show that his real name was Luke Burke.


James Parle

John Creane

Patrick Hogan

On Tuesday the 13th of March 1923 three men were executed in Wexford for their part in a raid on the home of Major M L Lakin, Horetown, Foulksmills, County Wexford, master of the Wexford Hunt. The three men were captured in possession of arms at the Major’s house on Thursday the 15th of February 1923. The executions took place at the County Hall, the County Hall which was formally the County Jail was commandeered by the National Army. In the afternoon a crowd, including members of Cumann na mBan, gathered outside the County Hall and recited prayers for the dead men.
  • James Parle, aged 25, of Clover Valley, Taughmon County Wexford, was connected with the I.R.A. prior to the Truce. His father William Parle is an extensive farmer.
  • John Creane aged 18, of Taughmon, County Wexford, employed as a shop assistant, he was a pre-Truce Volunteer and had a brother in the National Army and another in the Civic Guard.
  • Patrick Hogan, aged 20, of William Street, County Wexford, his father conducts a farriery establishment in Wexford.
  • On Wednesday 14th of March 1923 the following were executed by the National Army at Drumboe, Stranorlar County Donegal. All were tried and found guilty before a military court of being in procession of a large quantity of arms, ammunition and bombs including a German Egg Bomb.

    • John Larkin, Ballagherty, County Derry
    • Timothy O’Sullivan, William Street, Listowel, County Kerry.
    • Daniel Enright, Listowel, County Kerry.
    • Charles Daly, Konckanecoolteen, Firies, County Kerry.

    On the 15th of March 1923 John Kevins was shot dead by three plain-clothes men believed to be members of the National Army at Carrinahone, Beaufort, County Kerry.

    On the 17th of March 1923 Anti Treaty soldier James Donovan, an ex-RIC man, died from wounds received in action near the Macgillycuddy Reeks, he was a native of Killorglin County Kerry.

    On the 20th of March 1923 Anti Treaty soldier Jeremiah Casey was killed at Dunloe, Beaufort, County Kerry.

    On the 22nd of March 1923 Michael Neary was wounded and captured at Albert Road Glenageary County Dublin, he died a few days later in St. Michael’s Hospital Dun Laoghaire. Reports state that Neary was shot by Free State Army Officer Lieutenant Smith as he lay on the ground after surrendering. He was shot several times in the lower body. Neary had fought in the War of Independence and on the Anti Treaty side in the Battle of Blessington, he served time in the Curragh Camp from which he escaped.

    I.R.A. Anti-Treaty Captain Martin Hogan was abducted by a group of about ten men from Eccles Place Dublin on the 21st of April 1923, his body was found dumped at Grace Park Road Dublin the next day.

    The following four soldiers of the Anti Treaty Army were shot dead on the 23rd of March 1923. A party of National Army troops were travelling from Wexford to Enniscorthy, heavy machine-gun fire was opened on them, when reinforcements arrived from Wexford Military barracks the fighting had ceased but the reinforcements pursued the attackers, it was during this pursuit that the four men were killed:

  • Captain Denis Lacey, aged 27 from Killilla, Blackwater. His brother Josephdied as a result of a Hunger Strike in the Curragh Prison Hospital on the 24ht of December 1923.
  • John Leacy, aged 24 of Macken Street, Wexford. He was unmarried and worked as a railway clerk.
  • John O’Connor from Enniscorthy
  • Martin Nolan, Ballywilliam, New Ross.
  • The four men were members of the Kyle Flying Column.

    John Leacy

    Denis Lacey

    On Friday March the 23rd 1923 a soldier of the Anti Treaty forces was shot dead while attempting to blow-up the Carlton Cinema in Sackville Street Dublin, the dead man was named as:
    • Patrick O’Brien, 28 years old of Cadogan Road Dublin.

    On Sunday the 25th of March 1923 a soldier from the Anti Treaty Army was shot dead when a party of National Army troops were transporting prisoners from Dingle to Tralee County Kerry, the dead mans name was Robert (Bob) McCarthy.


    On Tuesday the 27th of March 1923 an inquest was held into the deaths of two men who were described as having met their deaths during Military Operations at Foilduff, Newport, County Tipperary. The two men were:

    • John Sheehy of Killalane, Killaloe, County Tipperary, aged 27 and chairman of the Nenagh Board Guardians. Medical evidence stated that Sheehy died from a bullet wound to the left side of his skull which was completely blown away and the greater portion of his brain was made pulp of. Death was due to shock and haemorrhage, there were no other wounds on the body.

    • Matt Ryan of Boher aged 30 years. Medical evidence stated that Ryan received a bullet wound in the right side of his back, the bullet passed right through his lung exiting opposite the entrance wound, this was the only wound to his body and it could not be confirmed that death was instantaneous.

    At the inquest evidence was given by soldiers of the National Army stating that they went to two houses where they encountered three men, the three men fired at the National Army troops and Sheehy and Ryan were killed in the ensuing gun-battle the third man, Hughes, surrendered.


    On Thursday the 29th of March 1923 an inquest into the death of Jerome Lyons a native of New Chapel near Clonmel County Tipperary. Lyons was shot when he grabbed the revolver of the interrogating office while being questioned at Kickham Barracks. Lyons was 26 years old.


    The body of Robert (Bobby) Bonfield was found at Dowling’s Farm Newlands Cross Clondalkin County Dublin. He had been arrested in Leeson Street Dublin. Bonfield was a Dental Student.


    On Friday the 30th of March 1923 the body of an Anti Treaty soldier was found on Upper Rathmines Road near Tranquilla Convent Dublin. The body of the deceased had 22 bullet wounds. The jury at the inquest found that Thomas O’Leary had been murdered and that the military authorities were un-corporative.

    • Thomas O’Leary, 22 years old from 17 Armstrong Street Harold’s Cross Dublin. He was killed on the 23rd of March.


    On Sunday the 1st of April 1923 an Anti Treaty soldier was killed when National Troops raided a dance hall on the Armagh Border at Ballybinsby, the dead man was identified as:

    • Bernard Morris aged 23 and was from Culloville.


    On the 1st of April 1923 Jerry Kiely was killed when a party of national Army troops raided a house at Lisvernane, Glen of Aherlow, County Tipperary. The raiding party made up of 18 or 20 men arrived at the house of Stephen McDonagh, leading the raiding party national Army Captain John O’Dea forced the front door and was confronted by Gerry Kiely who was armed with a pistol and a Thompson sub-machine gun, Kiely opened fire mortally wounding Captain O’Dea who died about 15 minutes after being hit. Kiely escaped the house but was confronted by the remaining National Army troops outside, he was shot dead in the ensuing gun fight. Jerry Kiely had served with the I.R.A. during the War of Independence, after the Truce in July 1921 he went to the USA returning after the Battle of the Four Courts.


    Two known Anti Treaty I.R.A. Members were arrested in Dublin, their bodies were later found on Ratoath Road Cabra County Dublin. The two men were:

    • Joseph Kiernan
    • Christopher Breslin


    An inquest into the death of Nicholas Corcoran held in Ballina last Thursday heard Nicholas Corcoran formally a clerk in the National Bank Ballina was shot dead by the National Army, he was a well know Anti Treaty IRA Volunteer. Corcoran had been captured by the National Army and as a prisoner was taken with three other prisoners to clear a mine on the Midland and Great Western Railway. The incident happened between Ballina and Foxford County Mayo. Corcoran and the three other prisoners were ordered to clear a telegraph pole from the railway line so that National Army troops could fire at what appeared to be a land-mine. In order to force the prisoners to remove the telegraph pole Sergeant Boyle of the National Army raised his rifle pointing it at Corcoran, he asked his commanding officer “will I put the wind up them” Sergeant Boyle fired and hit Corcoran killing him. At the inquiry into Corcoran’s death Sergeant Boyle claimed he had picked up another soldiers rifle, had he used his own rifle which was provided with a cut-off it would not have fired. The jury at the inquest returned a verdict that Corcoran had died of shock and haemorrhage as a result of a bullet wound inflicted by Sergeant Daniel Boyle of the National Army and from the evidence before them they could not say if the shot was fired by accident or deliberately. The Coroner stated that this was the third case of this type he had heard in Ballina recently and he hoped more supervision would be exercised over the National Army in future. Nicholas Corcoran was 20 years old and was an active of the Anti Treaty forces n Roscommon, Mayo and Sligo. Corcoran was a native of Dunmore County Galway, his father was manager of the National Bank Athenry.


    The following Anti-Treaty Troops were Killed in Action Friday the 6th of April 1923 near Glencar County Kerry, the Anti-Treaty forces were about to execute a Milesman employed by the Great Southern and Western Railway when they were surprised by troops from the 27th Battalion of the National Army. In the ensuing battle the following Anti-Treaty troops were confirmed killed:

    • George Nagel, Keel, Castlemaine.
    • William Conway O'Connor of Killorglin.


    The Connacht Tribune reported on the attack which took place at Headford County Galway on Sunday the 8th of April 1923. Two soldiers of the National Army and two Anti-Treaty I.R.A. Volunteers were killed when a party of Irregulars attacked a building formally known as the National Bank which was in use as the National Army barracks. Two Irregulars, wearing no boots, crept up to the door of the building where they placed a mine, when the mine exploded the National troops returned fire on the Irregulars who were occupying the shop of Mr Thady McHugh which was opposite the National Army barracks. During the ensuing gun-battle in which the Regular Army used a machine gun two National Army soldiers died. ALthough the headline on the Connacht Tribune report stated two Anti-Treay Volunteers were killed only one name was given in the report.

    • John Higgins Ballytrasna, Tuam.


    On the 9th of April 1923 Anti-Treaty Volunteer Martin Moloney died from wounds received the previous day when Free State Troops surrounded his father’s house at Cloontismara County Clare. Moloney’s father said his son was shot by the Free State Army after he had surrendered to them.


    On Wednesday the 11th of April 1923 the following six men were executed by the National Army at Tuam County Galway. All six were found guilty of having rifles and ammunition at Cluide County Galway on the 21st of February 1923. All were executed at 8am.

    • Francis Cunnane, Kilcoona, Headford, County Galway.
    • Michael Monaghan, Clonneen, Headford, County Galway.
    • John Newell, Wineforth, Headford, County Galway.
    • John McGuire, Cross Cong, County Galway.
    • Martin Moylan, Farmerstown, Annaghdown, County Galway.
    • James O’Malley, Oughterard, County Galway.


    On Wednesday the 11th of April 1923 the death of Liam Lynch was announced. He had been seriously injured in a shoot-out at Knockfallen at the foot of the Knockmealdown Mountains near Newcastle County Tipperary on Tuesday the 10 of April.


    On Friday the 13th of April 1923 a patrol of National Army troops went to investigate reports of Anti Treaty troops sheltering in a hay barn. The National Army troops discovered three men in the hay barn, the following Anti Treaty soldiers died,

    • John Linnane of Listowel County Kerry.


    On the 16th of April 1923 two Anti-Treaty Irregulars were killed in a Castleblake Castle near Rosegree, Clonmel County Tipperary. The Anti-Treaty Irregulars were occupying the ruins of Castleblake Castle, the National Army were aware of their presence and two columns of National Army Troops surrounded the building, Lieutenant Kennedy of the National Army entered Castleblake and called on the Irregulars to surrender, the Irregular’s Brigade Adjutant, Cleary surrendered, Somers hurled a Mills Bomb at the National Army Troops, wounding nine, and whilst firing a pistol made an attempt to escape, he only made it to the door before being shot in the head by a sentry at the castle gate. English managed to make it about thirty yards from the castle before he was also shot dead by National Army Troops.

    • Thomas (Theo) English, address given as Tipperary Town
    • Edward (Ned) Somers, a native of Callan, County Tipperary. He was an ex-Vice Commandant of the National Army.

    Nine National Army Soldiers and two Officers were wounded in the fight. The two officers, Lieutenant Kennedy and Captain Quinlan who were first to enter the castle received serious injuries.

    • Lieutenant Patrick Kennedy Óglaigh na hÉireann/National Forces died at St Bricin's Hospital, Dublin, on the 24th of April 1923 from wounds received in the Castleblake attack.  


    On the 16th of April 1923 at Clashmealcon Cave County Kerry several Anti Treaty troops engaged in a stand-off with National Army troops resulting in the deaths of several Anti Treaty troops. Several attempts were made by the National Army troops to capture the Anti Treaty troops in the cave including attempts to burn them out using turf soaked in paraffin and throwing two land mines into the cave. Two Anti Treaty troops lost their lives while attempting to scale a cliff to escape from the cave, they both fell to their deaths, they were,

    • Tom McGrath.
    • Patrick O’Shea.

    Another of the Anti Treaty troops lost his life when he offered to surrender and rope which he was climbing to get out of the cave snapped causing him to fall. National Army troops immediately opened fire killing him instantly, he was,

    • Timothy Lyons.


    On the 17th of April the Irish Independent reported on the death of John Moore of Vallymount County Wicklow who had been shot by Free State Army Soldiers in Mooney’s public house in Kilbride County Wicklow. Several Free State soldiers enter Mooney’s to search for another wanted man, one of the soldiers recognised Moore as an Anti-Treaty I.R.A. man who was operating as part of a Flying Column in the area. Moore is reported to have bolted for the back door, after several calls to halt and a warning shot being fired over his head Moore failed to stop a soldier fired and hit Moore.


    On Saturday the 21st of April 1923 the Irish Time reported on the inquest into the death of Liam Lynch Chief of Staff of the Anti Treaty forces who died from wounds received when he was shot Crohane Mountain south West of Clogheen County Kerry at 10 O’clock in the morning. Lynch was 33 or 34 years old and unmarried.


    On the 25th of April 1923 3 soldiers of the Anti Treaty Army were executed at Ballymullen Barracks County Kerry for their part in the Clashmealcon Cave stand-off. Despite 3 Anti Treaty and 2 National Army soldiers having already died as a result of the incident at the cave and also several pleas for the death sentences to be commuted the executions went ahead. The three men were part of an Anti-Treaty Column under the command of Lyons who was killed at Clashmealcon Cave, they were also part of a Column which held up Ballyduff Post Office, the burning of the Civic Guard Station at Ballyheigue and taking Civic Guard uniforms.

     The 3 men were:

    • Reginald Hathaway from Slough England. Reginald Hathaway who had deserted the British Army East Lancashire Regiment during the War of Independence said he had been a member of Lyons’s column since deserting, sometime before the Clashmealcon Cave fight he had surrendered to National Army Troops and had signed a form of understanding not to take part in further actions against the National Army he resumed fighting against the National Army when Humphery Murphy sent him a note saying surrendering was treason and if he did not immediately report to Lyons he would shot within 24 hours.
    • James McEnery from Lixnaw, a national school teacher. McEnery, who had previously surrendered while serving with Pieres’s column, also stated he had signed the undertaking not to fight against the national Army and had received the same death threats as Hathaway.
    • Edward Greaney from Ballyduff, a farmer's son. Edward Greaney claimed in a statement made after his capture that he was compelled by Lyons to join his Column, he stated that Lyons had read out an order to him intimating that any man who refused to obey the order would be shot.


    On the 26th of April 1923 Anti-Treaty Volunteer Patrick O’Mahony was executed at Home Barracks Ennis after he was found guilty of the killing of a Free State Soldier on Carmody Street Ennis on the 21st of April. On the 25th of April the Anti-Treaty had announced a ceasefire but the Free State Army claimed the action O’Mahony had taken part in occurred before the ceasefire it did not apply.


    On Saturday the 28th of April 1923 the Irish Times reported that the body of an Anti Treaty soldier was discovered in a bog in Glencar County Kerry, it is reported that he was killed in a recent engagement with National Army troops. The dead man was named:

    • Kelleher, a native of Cork.


    On Thursday the 3rd of May 1923 the following were executed at Ennis.

    • Patrick Mahony, Market Street, Ennis, County Clare. He was found guilty of the attack on a piquet of national Army troops in which one was killed. The execution was carried out at 7am.


    On the 2nd of May 1923, 2 days after the end of the Civil War, Anti-Treaty Volunteers Christopher Quinn aged 21 and William O’Shaughnessy aged 18 were executed at Home Barracks Ennis, both men had been arrested in Ennis on the day Free State soldier Privet Stephen Canty had been killed and charged with his killing.


    On Wednesday the 30th of May 1923 at 8am two men were executed at Tuam County Galway. The two men were arrested by military after a close search of the country side after an armed robbery of the Munster and Leinster bank in Athenry. They were found guilty by military court of taking part in the robbery and being in possession of stolen money and Webley revolvers, the robbery took place on the 22nd of May 1923. Both men are stated to have admitted guilt and claimed that the robbery had no political significance and related to problems they were having with farm repayments. The two executed men were:

    • Michael Murphy Ardrahan.
    • Joseph O’Rourke Ardrahan.

    *The military believed the robbery had a political link and the men had robbed the bank to raise funds for the Anti-Treaty forces. If the robbery had no political link it would be a civil crime and the men would most likely not have been executed.


    Mick Redford

    On the 2nd of May 1923 27 Anti-Treaty I.R.A. Volunteers escaped from the County Jail in Wexford.  One of the escapees was Michael (Mick) Redford. He was still on the run on the 22nd of June when he was shot. Accounts of the shooting vary, the Anti-Treaty Republican side state Redford was unarmed and although shot and mortally wounded on the evening of the 22nd he was left to die and his body not recovered until the next day. He was shot twice at The Cotts, Tacusmshane, County Wexford.


    On the 3rd of August 1923 the body of Henry McEntee was found at Dubber Cross near Jamestown Road Finglas County Dublin. It was alleged that McEntee had received treats from Oriel House.


    Patrick J Hanlon. Born in 1906 shot dead on the 4th of September 1923 by a sentry at Kilkenny Jail while being held prisoner. He was 17 years old and a member of A Company 3rd Tipperary Brigade Fianna Eireann.

    Deaths After the Civil War

    The affects of the Civil War were felt by those who took part long after it was over. The following is a list of Anti-Treaty Volunteers who died from the results of taking part in hunger strikes.

    • Captain Nicolas Hawes Lisdoonvarna, Mid-Clare Brigade died in 1922.
    • Volunteer Dan Killoury Moymore, Ennistymon County Clare, Mid-Clare Brigade died in 1922.
    • Annie Hogan, Cumann na mBan, died in September 1923.
    • Volunteer Dan Crawford, Coore, Miltown Malbay, West-Clare Brigade died in October 1924.
    • Captain Patrick McNamara, died in 1925.


    On the 12th of October 1923 the body of Noel Lemass was found at Featherbed Mountain Rathfarmham. The body could only be identified by his clothes and spectacles. Noel Lemass was the brother of Séan Lemass, had been abducted on Drury Street Dublin in July. Although the Civil War had ended by this time it was alleged that Noel Lemass was killed for his alleged part in the killing of Sean Hales although there is no evidence that Lemass was involved in the death of Hales



    On the 20th of November Denis (Dinny) Barry died in the hospital wing of the Curragh Camp after being on hunger strike since October the 19th. Barry, who was employed as a commercial traveller was Staff Officer of the 1st Cork Brigade, Anti-Treaty Forces, and Officer Commanding of the Cork Republican Police. He had been in the Curragh Camp since October 1922. He was removed to the hospital wing on the 19th of November and died at 2.45am on the 20th.


    Joe Lacey

    Joseph (Joe) Lacey died from complications as a result of Hunger Strike at the Curragh Hospital on the 24th of December 1923. He was 25 years old and the brother of Captain Denis Lacey who had been killed in action in March 1923 while fighting on the Anti-Treaty I.R.A. side.