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The Anglo Irish Treaty was signed in London on the 6th of December 1921. The signing of this Treaty brought the Irish War of Independence to an end.



The Coroner’s Court in Belfast heard on Thursday the 2nd of March Johnston Crothers, a moulder was shot dead in Belfast during recent disturbances. Crothers was an ex-British Army soldier who had survived the War, his father said at the inquest “my boy came through the horrors of was to be shot down in his native town by mongrels and hooligans.” 



On Thursday the 2nd of March 1922 a man named Samuel Herbert Burns was shot dead by a number of armed men at Milford Fair County Donegal, the men followed Burns and ordered him to put up his hands before shooting him. 


On the 3rd of March Max Green, chairman of the Irish prisons Board, was shot dead when he attempted to stop two men you had committed a robbery in Molesworth Street. 



On Friday the 3rd of March 1922 two men were shot dead in the continuing orgy of violence in Belfast. James Hutton, a bookmaker, of Central Street was alone in his house when what was believed to be a gang of four men entered. What transpired in the house is unknown, two shots were heard and when neighbours entered the house they found Hutton bleeding from a wound in the temple. He was taken to hospital but was dead on arrival. Hutton was a Protestant.

On the same day a Publican, James Riley, of Old Lodge Road, was on his way to his home in Clifton Park Avenue when he was attacked on Crumlin Road. Two men jumped out from the gateway of the Mater Hospital and fired several shots at him, Riley was dead when he was carried into the hospital. Riley was a Catholic. 



On the 3rd of March 1922 The Irish Time reported on the shooting of a civilian by a soldier of the Lancashire Fusiliers outside a public house on Ship Street Dublin. An argument between the soldier and Edward Reed relating to the Free State ensued, Reed invited the soldier outside to settle the matter, witnesses stated that the tow men went outside, shots were heard and reed was seen to stagger and fall. Reed was taken to hospital where he died the next morning. 


On Saturday the 4th of March 1922 another two people died as a result of the violence in Belfast. On Saturday evening a young man named Isaac Woodside McMillan of 30 Donegore Street Belfast was passing a picture house when a man a Young’s Row fired a revolver, McMillan was wounded in the head and died an hour later in hospital.

 A young man named James Hughes of 315 Crumlin Road was shot when he was returning home with his mother, when they got to the corner of Butler Street they passed two men who it is believed fired three shots at Hughes who was wounded in the head, Hughes was taken to the Mater Hospital were he died shortly after. 



On Monday the 6th of March 1922 the violence in Belfast continued. A bomb was thrown in Vulcan Street which exploded with terrific force, the explosion was followed by an out-break of revolver fire. A man named D. Fryer was fatally wounded in the abdomen when he was hit at the corner of Thompson Street, although badly wounded he ran to Woodstock Street where he collapsed, he was taken to hospital where he died a short time after. 



The body of a man, William J. Kerr, aged 25 was found lying of the footpath at York Road, Belfast on the 10th of March 1922. He had been shot through the heart, he was an unemployed labourer and from the Whitehorse district. 



Shortly after 9am on Saturday the 11th of March 1922 Mrs. Catherine Neeson was shot dead while standing at the front door of her house at 39 Little George’s Street Belfast. Three armed men rushed up and deliberately fired on her, she was hit in the chest and died a few minutes later.

On the same day two men who were injured in earlier in the week died from their wounds in hospital, the two men were:

• Benjamin Leith aged 26 of Regent Street Belfast.

• Herbert Woods aged 26 of California Street Belfast.

 On the same afternoon what were described as disgraceful scenes took place at the funeral of well know Loyalist Herbert Haggard, of Carl Lane Belfast, who died on Wednesday in the Royal Victoria Hospital from gunshot wounds. The funeral procession was largely composed of members of the Ulster Imperial Guard and the Orange Institution. It was not clear how the trouble started but as the funeral progressed through Grencastle on the way to Carnmoney Cemetery considerable revolver fire took place. During the shooting a man named Hugh McNally received a bullet wound which proved fatal, he died on the way to the Mater Hospital. The funeral procession proceed to Carnmoney Cemetery looting and wrecking Catholic businesses and homes as it progressed.

The Imperial Guard was an Unionists unofficial organization made up of ex-servicemen. 



On Sunday the 12th of March 1922 Vera Keyes died as a result of wounds received on Friday in Belfast City. Another civilian George Murphy died in hospital on the same day. 



  On the 15th of March 1922 a young girl, Mary Wilson aged 4, was shot dead on Norfolk Street Belfast. 



The Irish Time reported the death of Van Driver William Kane of Dunmurry County Antrim. Mr. Kane died as a result of a bomb explosion. 



On the 17th of March 1922 an inquest into the death of Patrick Cassidy was held at the Galway Workhouse who had been shot dead there the previous night. The inquest heard that Cassidy had been admitted to the hospital on the 8th of March suffering from three gunshot wounds, he would give no information as to how he received these wounds. Patrick Molloy, a patient in the same ward as Cassidy, gave evidence that two men entered the ward, one asked for Cassidy by name, one of the men approached Cassidy as he lay in bed and fired two shots. 



In what was described as a Black Day in Belfast five people was murdered on Saturday the 18th of March 1922. The five were; • Augustine Orange of Castlereag Street shot dead at 5am as he returned from a St Patrick’s Night Ball. He was found in Clermont Street.

• Annie Mullan aged 35 died of injuries caused by a bomb. Two men were seen running down the road at about 5am, they were seen throwing a bomb into the upper window of the house occupied by Annie Mullan and he aunt Rose McGreevy aged 84 at Thompson Street. When neighbours entered the room they found both women in what was described as an horrific state. Annie Mullan had one of her legs almost blown off.

• Henry Martin Garvey aged 25 shot dead while he delivered newspapers on a bicycle at North Howard street which runs between the Falls and Shankhill.

• Alexander Devanney of 68 Church Street, East, was killed by a bomb. He was killed on the Antrim Road at the corner of Churchill Street when a bomb was thrown into a tramcar he was travelling in.

• James Harkins of 8 Lecky Street wounded in the abdomen at Young’s Row.



On the night of Sunday the 19th of March 1922 at about 10am a number of armed men knocked on the door of Margaret Murphy 28 Campbell Street Old Lodge Road Belfast, when she opened the door the men fired on her killing he instantly.

 On the same day Daniel Logan of 20 Lincoln Street Belfast died from wounds he received when Sergeant Christopher Clarke R.I.C. was shot on the 13th of March. 




On Sunday the 19th of March 1922 two men were attacked by a large number of armed men, Robert Milligan and Joseph Steenson of Blackwatertown County Armagh were attack on Sunday night. Milligan, described as an Orange Man, was shot dead and Steeenson, a Special Constable, was hit seven time but survived. 



On Monday the 20th of March 1922 James Magee aged 45 of Hardinge Street Belfast was shot in Vere Street District, the wife of Magee only found out about her husband's death when a neighbour told her she had read of his death in the newspaper, she went to the Royal Victoria Hospital where she saw his dead body. 



On Monday the 20th of March 1922 Corporation employee James Hill was shot dead when cleaning ash pits in Beersbridge Road Belfast. A man rushed from a side street and fired at him, he was wounded in the head and died a few hours later in hospital. 



On Wednesday the 22nd of March 1922 Patrick Rooney, a hairdresser’s assistant, aged 24 was shot dead as he made his way home from work, he lived in Corporation Street Belfast and worked with his brother in Ship Street. He had just left his place of employment when three shots were fired at him, he was hit twice once in the chest and once in the head, he was removed to hospital where he died shortly after admission.

 Early in the afternoon of Wednesday the 22nd of March 1922 four year old Mary Wilson was shot dead as she played with her doll in the doorway of her parent’s house in Norfolk Street Belfast. 



During a raid on homes in the townland of Currabeha six miles east of Fermoy 22 year old Arthur Mulcahy was shot dead when taken from his bed by British Army soldiers. 


On Thursday the 23rd of March 1922 ex-sergeant of the R.I.C. John Taylor was accidently shot dead by crown forces, he was employed as a gateman by the Northern Spinning Mills on the Falls Road Belfast. 


On Thursday the 23rd of March 1922 William Cassidy, Irvinestown, County Fermanagh was shot dead. His father, who has served 23 years in the R.I.C., told the inquest into his son’s death that he went to his son’s house at 7.15am Friday morning and found his bed empty, his body was found in a field later that morning, he had been shot through the right ear.

On the same day the body of Frank Kelly Realtons Trillick County Tyrone was found in a field three miles distance from his home, half his skull had been blown away and he had a bullet wound to the left side of his body. 



On Thursday the 23rd of March 1922 Margaret Smyth aged 52 died from wounds she received on February the 13th when a bomb was thrown into a group of Catholic children in Weaver Street Belfast. 


On the 24th March 1922 five members of the McMahon household and a barman who worked for the family were killed in Belfast. The family were respected members of their community and it was believed the family were singled out for reprisal after the killing of two Special Constabulary policemen on the 23rd of March.

• Owen McMahon aged 50

• Bernard McMahon

• Frank McMahon aged 24

• Patrick McMahon aged 22

• Gerard McMahon aged 15

• Edward McKing aged 25 Barman



Shortly before Curfew (11pm) on Saturday the 25th of March 1922 the dead body of a man named Cosgrove, believed to be an ex-soldier of 53 Glenwherry Street was found lying in Earl Street in the York Street area. 



On Sunday the 26th of March John Patrick Dempsey aged 19 of Mountcollyer Avenue Belfast was shot dead in a neighbour’s house. Armed men had called to his home but had gone away after receiving no reply, one of the armed men returned a short while later and went to the neighbour’s house where he shot Dempsey. 



On Sunday the 26th of March 1922 in Belfast the population experienced what was described as another day of extreme violence. Shootings were reported from many parts of the city. In one incident Margaret Savage aged 21 was shot dead when a bullet entered through the window of her house in Burke Street off Dawson Street. It was not clear if the bullet was fired deliberately or if it was a stray. The incident happened at about 1am. 



On Tuesday the 28th of March 1922 Annie Hopkins of Straide County Mayo died from wounds she received in a raid on her father’s house. The family were awoken by the sound of the door being battered in. The house was occupied by the father Dominick Horkan, Thomas his son and Annie and Katie his two daughters. The two daughters hurried their father and brother to the back door. The raiders rushed to the back door but were tackled by the two daughters. In the ensuing struggle shots were fired and the two girls were hit. The two girls were rushed to Mayo hospital but Annie died, Katie was shot in the hand.

Katie told from her hospital bed how the raiders had opened fire on the two girls, Annie was hit and as she fell to the ground one of the raiders fired another shot into her body. Katie was wounded in the hand and threw herself to the ground, after shooting Annie one of the raiders then struck Katie with the butt of his rifle rendering her senseless.

The cause of the trouble according to Katie was the purchase of ten acres of land from which her grandfather had been evicted. The family had been subjected to intimidation from time to time since the purchase of the land. In one incident her father and brother were taken from their home one night and bound with rope and then thrown into the river.
One of the raiders, Patrick Gallagher, was shot dead during the raid. He was unclear as too who fired the shot that killed Gallagher. The raiders claimed he was shot by the Horkans while the Horkans claim he was shot by one of his fellow raiders. 


Cork Killings April 1922.  
Over the two days of the 27th and 28th of April 1922 ten men were shot dead by the I.R.A. in Cork. I have been unable to find any evidence that these killings were sanctioned by the Cork I.R.A. and from what I could find it appears they were carried out by the local battalions of the I.R.A. It was alleged that a note book containing a list of local informers had been recovered by the I.R.A. in a raid on the local R.I.C. barracks and the names of those killed had appeared as informers in this note book although in two cases family members were shot in place of those named on the list.

• Francis Fitzmaurice a Solicitor and Land Agent from Dunmanway killed on the night of the 27 of April 1922.

• David Gray a Chemist from Dunmanway killed on the night of the 27 of April 1922.

• James Buttimer a retired draper from Dunmanway killed on the night of the 27 of April 1922.

• Robert Howe from the village of Ballineen shot on the evening of the 28th of April 1922.

• John Chinnery from Ballineen shot on the evening of the 28th of April 1922.

• Alexander McKinley, 16 years old, shot on the evening of the 28th of April 1922.

• Reverend Ralph Harbord shot dead on the evening of the 28th of April at Murragh.

• John Buttimer and his farm hand Jim Greenfield were both shot dead west of Ballineen on the evening of the 28th of April.

• Also on the evening of the 28th of April Robert Nagle, sixteen years old, shot dead in his home on McCurtain Hill, Clonakilty, he was shot in place of his father who was not at home when the I.R.A. assassins called.

• On the evening of the 28th of April John Bradfield was shot because his brother Henry was wanted by the I.R.A.

The note book containing the list of informers was published in 1977 and it was alleged that those named on the list were members of a ‘Loyalist Action Group’ which was allegedly known as the ‘Protestant Action Group’. I have been unable to find any evidence of the note book being published before 1977. There have been several reasons put forward for these killings but as one theory has as much or as little credence as the next it is impossible to say which is the truth. 


Killings in Ballygroman April-May 1922  
Some days after the killing of I.R.A. Commandant Michael O’Neill on the 26th of April 1922 an inquest returned the verdict that he had been ‘wilfully murdered in the execution of his lawful duty’. O’Neill had been shot while in the house of Thomas Hornibrook by the son in law of Thomas Hornibrook Herbert Woods. After the inquest a large crowd, one report put the number at over 100, surrounded the house of Thomas Hornibrook. Reports of subsequent events differ but the result was that three men were killed, the three men were:
• Thomas Hornibrook.

• Samuel Hornibrook.

• Herbert Woods.

Herbert Woods was an ex-British Army Captain who was awarded the Military Cross. There are several accounts of the circumstances of the killings although I have been unable to verify any of these, one account states the men were hanged after an I.R.A. court martial, one account states Woods had his eyes gouged out by one of the brothers of O’Neill, another account states that the wife of woods claimed her husband had been drawn and quartered before being killed. I have been unable to find any reference to the bodies being recovered. 

On Saturday the 1st of April 1922 Joseph Garvey was shot dead on the Rathfriland Road as he returned from Newry Cathedral where he had just been to confession. Garvey was 23 years old and unmarried. Garvey’s body was found in a pool of blood on the road. 



The Irish Times on Friday the 2nd of April 1922 reported the deaths of three people. Many incidents of shooting and sniping as well as properties and even people being set on fire were reported. One woman had flammable liquid poured over her and she was set alight, she was seriously injured.

Shortly after daybreak a baker returning from work was shot dead by a sniper, only one shot was fired killing William Callum, he was shot in the neighbourhood of Cormac Street.


An 11 year old boy was shot in the head, Albert McMordie was delivering newspapers in the area of Grosvenor Place, he was taken to hospital but pronounced dead on arrival.


On the Shankill Road a young man named Michael Hugh was shot dead, he was a clerk in the Shankill Road labour exchange. He was on his way home from work when he was shot dead near Diamond Street, his body was taken to the Mater Hospital. 



On the night of Saturday 3rd of April and the early morning of Sunday the 4th of April six civilians were shot dead in Belfast. In reprisal for the shooting dead of RIC Constable George Turner from Brown Square Barracks, Police, some in uniform and some plain-clothes went on a murder rampage killing six civilians.  

  • Joseph Walsh aged 29 of 18 Arnon Street Belfast
  • Robert Walsh aged 3 months, 18 Arnon Street Belfast
  • W. Spellan, aged 63, Arnon Street Belfast
  • Joseph McRory, aged 45, 15 Stanhope Street
  • Bernard McKenna, 47 Park Street
  • J Mallon, Skegoniel Avenue Belfast.

Wounded in the same incident were:

  • Brigid Walsh, aged 2 years old, Arnon Street Belfast.
  • Michael Walsh, aged 7 years, Arnon Street Belfast.
  • Frank Walsh, aged 14 years Arnon Street Belfast.
  • Kathleen Austin, aged 18 years, Peter’s Place, Belfast.

An inquiry held in Belfast into the death of Henry Brennan, aged 19, of Donegal Road heard he was standing opposite Willow Street, a single shot was fired and Mr. Brennan was hit. Witnesses reported a military patrol was the only identifiable armed group in the area at the time. 


On Good Friday the 14th of April 1922 ex-soldier James Collins, a Roman Catholic, was taken from his home in Ramelton County Donegal and shot by armed men. He was stood against a wall and five bullets were fired into his body, he lay mortally wounded on the road for two hours before he managed to crawl home where he later died from his wounds. 


On Tuesday the 18th of April 1922 ex-R.I.C. Sergeant John Dunne, who has served in the R.I.C. for 33 years was shot dead in Ennis County Clare. 


At about 11 o’clock on the night of Friday the 21st of April 1922 Thomas Mulholland was shot dead in Dundalk. Mulholland was employed by Mr P. Deery. U.D.C., Church Street. Mr Mulholland was removed to hospital where he died at 12.20am. 



In what was considered to be a reprisal for the death of Mrs McCabe in the bomb attack on St. Matthew’s Church a 68 year old blind man was shot dead in an attack in his lodgings at 34 Beechfield Street Belfast. The man, Robert Miller, died when two men climber over the yard wall and entered into the kitchen of the house. Another man in the lodging house, Robert Smyth, who was also shot and injured, raised the alarm when he staggered to Mountpottinger Police Barracks. 


On Sunday the 23rd of April 1922 a woman, Mrs McCabe of Seaford Street Belfast, was mortally wounded when a bomb was thrown at worshipers on their way to mass at St. Matthew’s Catholic Church Ballymacarrett. Witnesses describe how several young hooligans threw the bomb without warning wounding several people. 


On Tuesday the 25th of April 1922 James Corr of Lowry Street East Belfast aged 70 was shot dead when hit by a snipers bullet in Middlepath Street. 


On Friday the 28th of April 1922 an inquest held in Belfast the City Coroner heard details of the deaths of John Mallon aged 63 Grove Back Lodge, Skegoneill Avenue Belfast who was shot in his own home and Samuel Mullan aged 26 of Havana Street Belfast who was found shot dead. A verdict of murder was returned in both cases. 


On Saturday the 29th of April 1922 John Shorten was shot dead at Killowen near Bandon County Cork. The inquest into his death heard that a part of men called to his house at 11pm demanding a pony and trap to go to Bandon. In evidence given by Elizabeth Shorten the sister of the deceased man, she said that her brother got out of bed but did not answer the door, the raiders broke into the house through the dining room, they went upstairs to her brother room and she heard a shot. She also told the inquest her brother John was unable to walk without the aid of sticks. The jury returned a verdict of death from shock and haemorrhage.


On Wednesday the 3rd of May 1922 two members of the ‘B’ Special Constabulary were shot dead at Annaghmore North Antrim. The house of William J. McClung was attacked by a group of armed man at 3.30am. McClung, who was member of the ‘B’ Special Constabulary, exchanged fire with the raider until his house was set alight he escaped through the back window. The exchange of fire was heard by a Patrol of the Ballykelly Special Constabulary, the Patrol hastened to the scene and as they approached they were ambushed.

The Patrol was met with a murderous volley of gunfire from both sides of the road and Special Constable Robert J. Cardwell was shot through the head. Some weeks earlier McClung had been visited by armed men who searched his property for arms, McClung later gave evidence in a firearms prosecution at Dungannon and has since received threatening letters. 03/05/1922 On Wednesday the 3rd of May the Belfast Coroner heard several cases concerning the deaths arising out of recent shooting in the city.


The first case was that of the death of Patrick Fitzsimons, carter, it was stated that he was removing furniture in the New Lodge Road district when a man came forward and shot him. Previously a crowd had been observed some distance away making signals and no attempt was made by the crows to catch the murderer, they appeared to cover his retreat. A verdict of death from gunshot wounds inflicted by members of an illegal assembly was returned. Patrick Fitzsimons was a Catholic.


The second case concerned the death of James Campbell an auto gas-meter inspector employed by the Belfast Corporation. Mr Campbell was brought up a cul-de-sac by armed men and shot dead. A verdict of death from gunshot wounds inflicted by members of an illegal assembly was returned. James Campbell was a Protestant.


 The third case was that of the death of Francis McGlynn who died as a result of a wound received while he was watching an incendiary fire in Vint’s Jam Factory. A bomb exploded and Mr McGlynn was hit by a splinter. A similar verdict to the ones returned in the other two cases was returned. 



An inquest held on the 3rd of May 1922 into the death of a postman attached to the Derrynoose Post Office County Armagh. The inquest heard that the postman Charles Part left his home at Brackley near Keady on Monday afternoon with his young son. Two hours later his son returned home with gunshot wounds to the head and wrist. Police evidence showed that Part’s body was found that evening at 8.30pm lying on the road, he had been shot through the head and body. Part was an ex-British Army soldier and was 55 years old. Evidence given in the inquest showed that Part was shot from a distance and he had not been robbed. The jury returned a verdict that death was due to laceration of the brain caused by gunshot wounds murderously inflicted by some persons unknown. 



On Saturday the 6th of May 1922 two men were shot and thrown into a bog hole at Cluntygeeragh outside Dungiven County Londonderry. One of the dead men who survived long enough to tell his Father what happened said that he and his uncle were sitting in McGilligan’s house between 1am and 2am when six men gained entry to the house, the men were armed and had their faces blackened. The men demanded arms and ammunition and when this was refused both men were shot.

Patrick Kilmartin was shot six or seven times and then thrown into the bog hole on top of his uncle, he pretended to be dead until the assassins left. His uncle John Carolan was shot four times and died instantly. 


On Sunday the 7th of may 1922 labourer Anthony McConville was dragged from his home and shot dead when two armed men knocked at his door claiming they had a warrant to search his house. McConville lived in the town land of Tarson about two miles from Portadown County Armagh. 


On the 9th of May 1922 an inquest was held into John Eirn who was described in the court as a mystery man. Erin’s dead body was found on the road at Teebane West, County Tyrone. Apart form his name little else was known of the man, locals stated that Eirn claimed he was a newspaper reporter from London, he had lived in the area for some time. Police believe Eirn was not murdered where his body was found but had been killed elsewhere and his body dumped at the place where it was found. A notice tied to Eirn’s body read Spies and traitors beware. The jury returned a verdict of Murder. 



On the 10th of May 1922 the mystery surrounding the unidentified body found at Gortin County Tyrone was solved. The body was identified as Israel Sagarsky who had come to Ireland as a cutlery salesman. The body was identified by the mans father who told the inquest that his son had suffered from loss of memory but had recovered, when his son was in Dungannon he suffered another bout of memory loss and it was only when he was discharged from hospital did his father find him. His father arranged for his son to go to Glasgow and had arranged for his arrival with the Glasgow Jewish Society. Shortly before Sagarsky was due to travel to Glasgow he was kidnapped and murdered, a note found around his neck read Spies and Traitors beware. Sagarsky father said his son had absolutely no connection with any secret society and believed it was his lapse of memory that brought him under suspicion. 


On Thursday the 11th of May 1922 a group of armed men attacked the home of the McKeown family who lived in a cottage at Ballymulderg near Magherafelt County Londonderry. At 2.30am a group of armed and masked men surrounded the cottage demanding Mrs. McKeown to open the door, three men entered the cottage demanding all male members on the household come to the Kitchen. Mrs. McKeown lived in the cottage with her three sons. James McKeown was the first to enter the kitchen and was met by a hail of bullets. Volleys were fired at the other tow sons Thomas and Francis, both were severely wounded Francis received sixteen bullet wounds. 


On Saturday the 13th of May 1922 Michael Cullen, aged 44, of Havana Street Dublin died in the Mater Hospital from wounds he received when he was caught in the cross-fire of a gun battle which took place at the junction of Havana Street and Oldpark Road the previous evening. Mr. Cullen was found unconscious on a piece of waste ground near the scene of the gun fight. He had received a number of gun shot wounds to the back and shoulder. 



On Saturday the 13th of May 1922 Robert Beattie a postman and well know Orange Institution member was shot dead as he delivered letters on Butler Street Belfast. Beattie was due to transfer to the London Postal Service, he was an ex-British Army soldier who had served during WW1 and was secretary of the Purple Star of Ulster Loyal Orange Lodge and was also a member of the Masonic Order. 


On Thursday the 18th of May 1922 three men were killed when travelling on trams in Belfast. The first two, Samuel McPeake aged 50 of Ligoniel Road and James Donaghy aged 46 of 53 Ligoniel Road both Flax Dressers in York Road spinning mill were travelling together. As the tram approached Agnes Street the passenger behind both men opened fire on them with a revolver.

In another incident that afternoon Thomas McCaffery aged 18 of 43 Shore Road was killed when a man opened fire on him with a revolver. Witnesses stated that three shots were fired in rapid succession. The incident happened at the Midland Railway terminus. The three dead men were stated to be Catholics.


In another incident a Carter named William M’Knight aged 34 in the employment of Messer’s Gregg and Company was shot through the abdomen as he was passing through Exchange Street, he was taken to hospital where he died from his wounds. M’Knight was a Protestant. 


 A rampage by a gang led to the murder of four men and the burning of several commercial premises in the village of Desertmartin County Londonderry. The armed gang entered the houses of Henry and James McGoohan and John and Francis Higgins taken the men from their beds took them for about a mile along the road and then shooting them dead. All four victims were Roman Catholics. 


On Monday the 22nd of May 1922 several people were shot dead in Belfast: • Joseph Brady Kilmood Street Belfast was wounded in the district during the night and died early next morning in hospital.

• A sniper opened fire on three men returning from work. George Lawson of Maymount Street was shot dead.

• Charles Murphy, a rag picker of Duncrue Street Belfast was engaged in is work when he was shot dead.



 On Monday the 22nd of May 1922 a member of the Northern Parliament was shot dead. Mr W. J. Twaddell M.P., a member of the City Council was shot while passing through Garfield Street from Royal Avenue. Witness stated that several men lay in wait near the Artisans Hall Garfield Street. Mr Twaddell was hit several time and died instantly. 



On Saturday the 27th of May 1922 ex-R.I.C. constable James Grier was shot dead at Cootehall near Boyle County Roscommon. Several armed men called at his house and ordered him outside where they shot him dead. The gang then went a short distance to the house of his son Thomas, also an ex-R.I.C. constable, Thomas Grier was ordered outside, when he refused to go he was shot eight time, he died shortly after from his wounds. Thomas Grier had served in the R.I.C. during the War of Independence. 


On Sunday the 28th of May 1922 father and son James and Thomas Greer were shot dead outside their home in Cootehall Boyle County Roscommon. The father, James Greer was an ex-sergeant in the R.I.C. and the son, Thomas, had also served in the R.I.C. for a short time. Early Sunday morning three men arrived at their house in a motorcar demanding arms, when they were told no arms were kept at the house James and Thomas were brought outside, their bodies were found a short time later. 


On Saturday the 28th of May 1922 ex-R.I.C. Sergeant William Leech was shot, he was on Brunswick Street Dublin near the police station when four shots were fired at him. He died from bullet wounds to the head. Leech had served 12 years in the R.I.C. 


On Saturday the 29th of April armed men called on the residence of John Bradfield, a farmer, of Killowen Cottage Bandon County Cork and shot him dead.

 Fears of murder spread through the district, during Friday and Saturday over one hundred persons from Dunmanway, Ballineen and Bandon County Cork left the district and travelled to Cork, leaving, in most cases, female relatives to look after their homes during what they hope will be a temporary absence. Many business in the area closed. 


On Wednesday the 31st of May 1922 as many gun battles raged through out Belfast City Robert Monaghan of 34 Arizona Street Belfast was shot while watching one of the gun battles. 


On Sunday the 6th of June 1922 Mister James Woulfe Flanagan Resident Magistrate was shot and fatally wounded as he left Newry Cathedral after 11 o’clock mass, he died 10 minutes later in the house of Mr. P Fox. As Mr. Flanagan left the Cathedral at about 12 noon he was approached by four armed young men who said to him “come with us”, Mr Flanagan refused and they immediately fired on him wounding him three times in the chest, a young boy named Toman was also wounded in the hail of bullets. Mr. Flanagan’s sister who had accompanied him to mass caught one of the assailants by the collar and was roughly flung aside, the four young men made off in a Ford motor car which was waiting for them at the scene.

Mr. Flanagan, know as a fearless administrator of the law, had been involved in many political cases in the Newry district. 


On the 8th of June 1922 Mr Archibald McCann, aged 40, a farmer, of Mounthamilton, Cloughmills, Ballymoney, County Antrim, was shot dead by armed men who called to his farm, his nephew John McCann aged 18 was seriously injured in the attack. Three men with revolvers entered the house in the early hours of the morning, the two men were ordered outside where the gunmen fired several shots at them. A member of the “B” Specials was arrested in connection with the shooting, Mr McCann was a catholic. 


On Sunday the 11th of June 1922 a young man named Patrick Carroll was shot dead on the roadside near his home near Nenagh County Tipperary, his father’s house was burnt to the ground. Carroll’s brother who was a member of the RIC in Cork was shot dead when on home leave in Nenagh a year ago. 



On Monday the 12th of June 1922 leading Belfast business man Mr. Edward D, Devine, a director of Bernard Hughes Ltd., a well know Belfast bakery on the Springfield Road, was shot dead in his office. Mr. Devlin was described as a plucky man who tackled the raiders and was killed instantly in a struggle with one of the raider. Mr Devlin was over 50 years old. It was believed there were three raiders who escaped with a large sum of money. 


On the 13th of June 1922 while walking near his home in North Queen Street Belfast sailor William Smith, aged 55, was struck with a rifle bullet fired by a group of men standing at the corner of Grove Street. Mr. Smith died from the bullet wound. 


On the 13th of June 1922 two men who were taken from the Bessbrook area of County Armagh by Crown Forces were later fond riddled with bullets near Lislea. The two men were Patrick Cregan, High Street, Bessbrook and Thomas Crawley, Geryhillan, Whitecross. 


On the 16th of June 1922 Thomas Mullaney aged about 38, from East Street in the Cromac Square area of Belfast, was shot and mortally wounded by Soldier, it was believed by the Soldier that Mullaney was about to draw a revolver, the Soldier fired on Mullaney wounding him in the cheat, Mullaney was admitted to hospital but died shortly after. It was stated that Mullaney was in the area visiting his brother who lived in Grove Street. 



On the 17th of June 1922 the I.R.A. raided the small community of Altnaveigh just outside Newry County Down. Six people were killed in what became known as the Altnaveigh Massacre. Six people, all Unionist were killed, they were:  • At 3am an armed gang arrived at the home of Thomas Crozier, an elderly farmer. Mr. Crozier was shot and mortally wounded in front of his wife and son.
  • Two men John Heslip aged 54 and his son Robert aged 19 were shot when a gang of armed men raided their farm, the family were marched to a stable in the farm yard while the family home burned, Mrs. Heslip was still in her night attire, her husband and son were shot in front of her., the raiders left but returned to pump more bullets into the bodies of the dead men.
  • On the same morning James Lockhart aged 25 of Lisdrumliske was murdered. James Lockhart and his father, along with a neighbor John Little, were ordered to walk down the road. Mrs. Lockhart protested and when her son James turned to speak to her one of the raiders grabbed him telling him he had disobeyed orders then shot him dead at his mother’s feet.
  • On the same morning the Gray family were subject to a horrific attack which resulted in the death of their son Joseph Murdock Gray aged 19 years and employed as a coal merchant. Mrs. Gray told how the family were lined up and one of the raiders walked down the line shooting as he went, she said they were lucky they were not all killed. 


On Saturday the 17th of June 1922 John Brehany who lived with his father at Lavalla Ballymote County Sligo was shot dead when armed and masked men called at his residence looking for his brother who was an retired R.I.C. constable. 


At 1.00am on Sunday the 18th of June 1922 a 14 year girl Madge Livingston was shot dead at her home in Ardlougher County Cavan when a party of armed men raiding for arms fired when the girl look out through an upper window of her house. As there was no Coroner for County Cavan the inquest was conducted by two local Justices and a jury of six Catholics and six protestants. The girl suffered sever wounds to the head. 


On Monday the 19th of June 1922 what was described as a cruel murder was committed when a man named Peter Murray was shot dead by armed men in Newry County Down. Murray was a native of Skerries County Dublin. The Irish Times also reported on the mass exodus from Newry to the nearby village of Omeath in County Louth as people fled to avoid the nightly violence. Murray was working for the Great Northern Railway Company on the reconstruction of the permanent way, he was sleeping at Edward Street station in an engineer’s van when armed men entered abducted Murray and marched him nearly a mile along the track in the direction of Goraghwood before shooting him dead. Murray has served as a sergeant in the Royal Irish Fusiliers during the War. 


On Thursday the 20th of June 1922 Patrick Macalinden was shot dead by Special Constables in the townland of Ballybrick near Rathfriland County Down. The Specials claimed they had called on Tuinelty and his companion Patrick Tuinelty to stop and when they failed to comply fire was opened on them Tuinelty was seriously injured. 


On Tuesday the 20th of June 1922 David French aged 20, a carter, was shot while coming along Duncrue Street Belfast, several men jumped into the van he was driving and shot him dead at point-blank range. 


On Tuesday the 20th of June 1922 two men were shot dead in Belfast, Charles O’Neill who was employed by the Corporation was shot dead at Brentwood Football club. Alexandra Park Avenue. The second man, James Tutton was shot dead as he was approaching the dumping grounds at Duncrue Street, he was shot dead by two men. 


On Thursday 22nd of June 1922 ex-soldier John Lawless who lived in the upper part of a tenement house at 11 upper Rutland Street Dublin was shot dead about midnight. Shortly before midnight two men rushed up the stairs of the tenement, on opening his door Lawless was asked if a man named Wilson lived at this address, when Lawless replied no he was asked his name, on replying one or two shots were fired killing Lawless. 



On the night of Friday June 23rd three men, all Catholics, were shot dead by the “Specials” in Cushendall County Antrim. The three men were:

  • John Gore aged 22 from Ashbrook, Cushendall, he was a farmer.
  • James McAllister aged 18 from Gelnariff
  • John Hill aged 20 from Ballycastle, he was employed as a chauffeur.

At the time of the killings the ‘Ulster Home Office’ issued a statement that the dead men were involved in an I.R.A. ambush on a convoy of “Specials” but this was strongly denied by locals who said the men were shot in cold blood and were not part of the I.R.A. or any political organisation.


On Sunday the 25th of June 1922 three men entered the house of William Miller of 29 Willowfield Street Belfast and shot him dead, he received three gunshot wounds to the head and died instantly. Miller was a Roman Catholic. 


On Monday the 26th of June 1922 Publican Patrick Ward of Little Patrick Street was fatally wounded when hit by sniper fire while standing outside his premises. 


Patrick Joseph Cosgrove (Aged 14) of 1 Lower Dominick Street, Dublin received a bullet wound on 28th June 1922 behind the Four Courts on George's Hill. His occuption is on the death cert as a messenger. Patrick's death cert shows he was brought to the Royal Richmond Hospital, Kilmainham, Dublin where he died from shock & haemorrhage due to his wound. He was buried with his deceased father Edward Cosgrove at Plot GD 32, St Paul's Section, Glasnevin Cemetery which is currently unmarked.


On the 28th of June 1922, the first day in the battle of Dublin when the Four Courts, occupied by anti-treaty forces, were attacked by the Free State Army William Doyle was shot and mortally wounded outside the Ormond Hotel, Ormond Quay Dublin. Doyle was 18 years old and a native of Neville Street Ross County Wexford. He had worked at the Ormond Hotel for about 2 years. He was an active member of Na Fianna in Wexford and in Dublin. Free State Troops in a Corssley tender flying a Red Cross flag took Doyle and another two wounded civilians to Jervis Street Hospital. He suffered a serious wound to the head. Reports and the inquest into his death strongly suggest he was not involved in any Pro or Anti-treaty activities when he was shot.


On Friday the 30th of June 1922 hospitals around Dublin reported on the number of dead civilians killed due to the fighting in Dublin.

  • Jervis Street Hospital: Michael Keogh aged 31 and a resident of Little Strand Street, Dublin.
  • Richmond Hospital: Patrick White, Benburb Street Building. A man named Murphy, no other details available.
  • Meath Hospital. Miss Harrison died from wounds received on Wednesday in Harcourt Street.


On Thursday the 6th of July 1922 William Saunders aged 15 was shot and fatally wounded as he waved to prisoners in Mountjoy Prison Dublin. Henry Wright, who was with Saunders at the time of the shooting, told the inquest that hey had been at a shed at Cross Guns Bridge attempting to attract the attention of the prisoners when shots were fired, Wright stated that he did not think the shots were deliberately fired at them. 

William Saunders lived at 31Synge Street Dublin and was employed as an apprentice pipe maker. He is buried in Glasnevin Cemetery Dublin. (HD 102 St. Paul’s)


On Monday the 10th of July 1922 a man went to the aid of a neighbour and was shot dead. The dead man, Mr. Little, heard the cries of his neighbour Mr. Watson, who was struggling with tow armed men who had called to his house asking for his Son William Watson. The incident happened at Bramcoute Street Belfast. Mr Watson had disarmed the two men but one of them wrestled a gun from Mr Watson as Mr Little approached. The two raiders escaped. 


On Wednesday the 27th of July 1922 the shooting of farmer and building contractor 67 year old James McGinnity who was shot dead near his house at Edevane near Ballybay County Monaghan. The shooting happened about 2am. The day before the shooting McGinnity had received a letter which was pushed under his door. The letter was headed I.T.G.W.U. (Irish Transport and General Workers Union) the letter threatened McGinnity that if he should he carry out any more repairs to the Ballybay road drastic measures would be taken. Bridget McGinnity, the daughter of the deceased, told the inquest into her father’s death that at about 1am on the night of the murder noises were heard outside the house, he father went to investigate, two shots were reported and McGinnity was found dead on the road. 


On the 12th of July 1922 the Irish Times reported into the death of William Shields aged 21 of 32 Delaware Street Belfast. Mr Shields was returning from work when he was shot by a sniper. Witnesses at the Inquest told how they reported the incident to soldiers who only laughed. Mr Shields was a professional footballer and described as a very promising lad.

Also on the same day an Inquest was held into the death of Hugh McDonald 20 years old from 5 Saul Street Belfast. Mr McDonald was employed as a labourer and was taken from a tramcar on the 21st of May 1922 and beaten at Memel Street Belfast. After the incident his body was removed to the Royal Victoria Hospital. 


Patrick Whelan was shot and fatally wounded by a Free State Army sentry at Mountjoy Avenue on the 16th of July 1922, he was shot on the 7th of July and died from his wounds in the Mater Hospital, Dublin on the 16th. Patrick Whelan was an ex-British soldier who had served during WW1 in the Royal Field Artillery (service number 39868).


On Saturday the 23rd of July 1922 two men were shot dead in a raid on a Dublin public house. Both men were in the Angler’s Hotel, Knockmaroon, County Dublin, when three armed raiders enter shouting ‘hands up.’ Both men grappled with the raiders and shots were fired. The two dead men were named as: • Arthur Richardson aged 36
  • John Tobin aged 25.



Two girls were shot dead and one seriously wounded at Edenappa, Jonesborough County Armagh. The girls were returning from collecting water from a well, the girls were unaware that Moore’s house was being searched by soldiers, the well was about twenty yards from the house. The sentries posted outside while the house claimed to have challenged the approaching girls and when they did not reply shots were fired. The two girls killed were:

  • Margaret Moore aged 12. She was shot twice the bullets hitting her in the heart
  • Mary Connolly aged 20. Receive two bullets to the head.
  • The injured girl was Mary Moore aged 18. Received four bullets to the leg, she was taken to Newry Hospital.

A fourth girl, Kate Moore aged 15, was uninjured.

On Monday the 25 of July 1922 Leslie Edmonds M.A. of the Congested Districts Board and his Chauffeur John Jordon were killed when the car they were travelling in was ambushed by Anti-Treaty I.R.A. during an ambush of National Troops at Carnmore Ballybrit County Galway. Nicholas Jordon was 19 years old. 


On Sunday the 30th of July 1922 Samuel Oakes aged 17 was fatally wounded when shot by the military during a raid on a public house owned by Mrs Maria Dowling, Blackmill Street, Kilkenny. The inquest into his death found he had died from shock and haemorrhage the result of gunshot wounds accidently inflicted by the military in the discharge of their duty. Evidence at the inquest was given that the military were carrying out raids in the vicinity of the prison, when passing Mrs Dowling’s premises there were attracted by noise from inside. The officer in charge directed a party of his men to the rear of the house and then knocked at the front door. He was not admitted for ten minutes during which time he could hear people trying to escape through the back of the premises. One of the military told the inquest he fired two shots into the air and then lowering his rifle fired two more shots, it was dark and he did not see anyone. Eleven young men were arrested at the scene and young Oakes found after the military had left, he was still alive but suffering from a large wound to his head, part of his skull having been blown away. He was taken to the kitchen of the public house where he died shortly after. 


Farmer Michael McSweeney of Ballynaraha County Limerick was shot dead after an argument in a public house in Patrick’s Well with Joseph Butler a soldier in the National Army. 


On Friday the 25th of August 1922 at about 5pm four men in civilian clothes but believed to be members of the National Army were ambushed as they travelled by car in Whitefriar Street Dublin. Shots were exchanged and the attackers made off A short distance away from the first attack the car was attacked again when a bomb was thrown at it in Great Longford Street, the bomb exploded with a loud bang, none of the occupants of the car were injured but a passer-by, John Byrne aged 23  received two bullet wounds and died as a result of is injuries.  John Byrne was single and employed as a porter he lived at 37 Cuffe Street Dublin. He is buried in Glasnevin Cemetery Dublin. (SL 308.5 St Patrick’s)



Patrick Cosgrave the uncle of William Cosgrave President of the Provisional Government was shot dead on Saturday night. He was closing the Licensed Premises of his sister-in-law Mrs Burke, 174 James’s Street, Dublin. As he was about to close the shop several armed men rushed in shouting ‘hands up.’ The motive for the raid appeared to be money, as the men departed the shop a shot was fired and Patrick Cosgrave was seen to staged and fall near the door. Dr. D. O’Kelly who was with other visitors upstairs rushed down and found Mr. Cosgrave had been shot in the chest, spiritual aid was given by Rev. Father Morris, Mr. Cosgrave was taken to Steevens’s Hospital but was dead on arrival. 


On the night of the 26th of August 1922 while the I.R.A. were raiding a house on Brighton Road Foxrock County Dublin in search of arms a resident of the house was mortally wounded when he refused to obey the instructions of one of the raiders. The resident, John Harvey Colvill Jones was shot in the stomach, he was rushed to St. Vincent’s Hospital where he died from his wounds on the 28th of August. 


On the 26th of August 1922 Patrick Murtagh was shot dead in Glasson Athlone County Westmeath when he was caught in the cross-fire as Anti Treaty Forces ambushed troops of the National Army. 



On Sunday August the 27th 1922 John Moriarty was shot dead near the town of Tralee County Kerry. A witness, James Healy, who was seriously wounded in the same incident, gave evidence at the inquest. The inquest was not held until December 1922 to allow Healy to recover from his injuries. Healy, an ex-British soldier told the inquest he was taken from his house by three armed men who took him to Moriarty’s house where four armed men were waiting with Moriarty, the two men were taken to a field in Balloonagh where they were given five minutes to say their prayers. Healy was fired at six time but only one bullet hit him, wounded in the stomach he crawled to a nearby house, as he crawled he heard shots which he believed were the shots that killed Moriarty. It was believed both men were shot because the local Anti-Treaty side believed they were going to join the Free State Army. 


On the 27th of August 1922 Patrick Fagan, an engine driver of 22 Reginald Street Dublin and 11 Harbour Street Bray County Wicklow was shot and mortally wounded on Thomas Street Dublin. The inquest into Fagan’s death heard from Station Sergeant McGarth that he found Fagan in Thomas Street about 12.30 suffering from gunshot wounds. Fagan told Station Sergeant McGarth that the shots that hit him came from the direction of Thomas Street Church. Fagan was able to walk to the Coombe Hospital, the wounds became infected and Fagan was removed to the Meath Hospital where he died. Station Sergeant McGarth later learned that the National Army had been operating in the area of the shooting at the time and had fired three shots in reply to being fired on. 


On Friday the 1st of September 1922 the body of a postman was found at Musgrave Channel Belfast. The dead man was George Higgins aged 38 from Eglinton Street Crumlin Road Belfast, he had been shot through the head. The Government of Northern Ireland offered a reward of £1000 for information leading to the conviction of the killers of George Higgins. This was the second case of murder in Belfast during the week, the body of Mr. Mullen the Caretaker in the Crumlin Road Picture House was also found. 


A verdict of wilful murder against an unknown man who shot him was returned in the case of William Levingstone Cooke who was shot dead when a group of men called to his house demanding subscriptions for a football club, Mr Levingstone lived at Rock Lodge, Old Blackrock Road, Cork.

Collections for such organisations were euphemisms used by those collecting for the IRA and Sinn Fein, those who refused were often not given the chance to refuse a second time. 


On the 4th of September 1922 a young man was shot dead in a shop at number 10 Capel Street Dublin. William Somers, aged 19 with an address in Jervis Street, was in the shop when three National Army soldiers with a man in civilian clothes entered. Witnesses stated that the man in civilian clothes order the door to the shop be closed and order several customers in the shop to put their hands up, when the plain clothes man went to search one of the customers two shots were fired. A police officer gave evidence that he interviewed a soldier of the National Army in Jervis Street Hospital, the soldier gave a statement that he was on duty at the time in plain clothes, when he entered the shop he shouted ‘hands-up’ a civilian sitting at a table took up a revolver and shot at him hitting him resulting in a serious wound.

The inquest into William Somers death returned a verdict that he had been shot by a Soldier of the National Army in the execution of his duty. 


On the 6th of September 1922 the inquest was held into the circumstances of the death of Edward Bernard Devine aged 50 of Springfield Road Belfast. Mr Devine was shot when the premises of Hughes’s Bakery were raided by a gang of five armed men. Mr Hughes grappled with one of the raiders taken his revolver from him, one of the other raiders fired on Mr. Hughes at point blank range, killing him instantly. The raiders stated they were raiding for arms. 


On Thursday the 14th of September 1922 a young merchant sailor Edward Williams aged 18 from 15 Burley Street Liverpool who was serving on the Cork Steam Packet Company’s S.S. Kenmare as a wireless watcher was shot dead on the corner of Bridge Street Cork. Williams had left the ship with another young man, John William Cave of 8 Howe Street Liverpool, on Thursday night, as they were talking to some girls at the corner of Bridge Street a man emerged from a Public House and fire on Williams with a revolver. The Captain of the S.S. Kenmare stated that Williams had only joined the ship on Tuesday and this was his first trip to Cork. 


On Sunday the 9th of September 1922 three people died in Belfast as a result of sniping. Shots were fire at intervals between 1pm until 3pm. • Shortly after 1.30pm Thomas McCullock of Harding Street was shot at the corner of Great George’s Street, an ambulance arrived quickly at the scene but McCullock was dead when it arrived.
  • At 2.40 several shots were fired in the vicinity of Garmoyle Street and Marine Street. James McCluskey, a ship’s fireman of Marine Street was mortally wounded. He was rushed to the Mater Hospital but was found to be dead on arrival.
  • Later that night four men entered the house of Mrs Jane Rafferty in New Andrew Street. The men produced revolvers and shot her dead.
  • The inquest into the death of Louisa Amelia Cannon heard that the young woman was killed by a bomb explosion on the corner of Slate Street Belfast.


On the 5th of October 1921 Mrs. Mary Sherlock died as a result of wounds received when she was shot when leaving a grocery shop in East Belfast. It was reported two revolver shots were fired and Mrs. Sherlock fell bleeding from the head and died later in hospital. Mrs. Sherlock lived at Vulcan Street, Ballymacarrett. 



On Wednesday the 4th of October 1922 two young men were taken from their homes and not heard of until their bodies were found tied together in a turnip field on Saturday the 7th of October. The two men were, • Patrick Burns of Knockbeg, Whitechurch, County Cork.
  • Doniel O’Hanlon Ballinamoora White’s Cross, County Cork.

The two men were well known supporters of the treaty. 


On Monday the 9th of October 1922 Henry Moore aged 50 was shot dead by two armed men at his home in Carman Hall Cottages, Leopardstown Road, Stillorgan County Dublin. The incident happened around 9.30pm, Mr Moore was rushed to Monkstown Hospital but was dead on admission, he had been shot through the right shoulder with an exit wound on the right side of his back. 


At about 10 o’clock on the night of the 16th of October 1922 armed men called at the house of J. Walsh of Gerald Griffin Street Cork and shot him dead, he was employed as a pawnbroker’s assistant.


It was reported in Limerick that two men were shot dead near Newcastle West, four men were travelling home in a ‘tub’ car when about a mile from the town they were challenged to halt, immediately after the challenge shots were fired at the car resulting in the deaths of:

  • James Ambrose of Killeedy
  • Patrick King of Ballykenny  

Both men were dead when medical assistance arrived at about 11pm. The military were not operating in the area at the time of the shooting.

On Sunday the 5th of November at about 1am a party of armed but un-disguised men called at the homes of two men in Powelsboro Tubbercurry. The armed men said they wished to question both men, at about 5am a volley of shots was heard which ended the two men’s lives. The two dead men were,
•   Mr. O’Connor, married with 10 children.
  • Mr. Hunt

On the same day, as National Troops were searching the area in which Hunt and O’Connor were killed, a motor car was observed approaching the National Troops at great speed. The order to Halt was disobeyed and the National Troops fired on the car. One of the passengers of the car, Mr. McPartland was killed in the incident, a woman who was also in the car was injured.

On the same day in Tubbercurry a man named Warren was taken from his bed and later found dead on the roadside, it was reported that his body had been riddled with bullets. 


On Monday the 6th of November 1922 a prisoner at Limerick Jail was shot dead by a soldier of the National Army who was guarding the prison at the time. The prisoner, Michael Buckley, had been warned several time to stop making hand signals to another prisoner, after several warning the guard shot Buckley dead. 



On Wednesday the 8th of November 1922 James Cullinan, a farmer, from Kilnamona was shot dead on the road side. 



On Monday the 13th of November 1922 a young man, James Martin of the Townland of Drumcar County Cavan was shot dead when his father’s home was raided by armed men. The family were saying the rosary when the armed men entered their house ordering the occupants to ‘put up their hands’, James refused and was shot dead. 



On Monday the 13th of November 1922 Peter Cummins aged 27 of 12 North King Street Dublin was shot dead by two men in North Frederick Street Dublin. A witness at the inquest stated that he saw two men approach Cummins, he next heard a shot and saw Cummins fall to the ground. Witness also stated that Cummins told him when he went to his aid that the two men had demanded money from him. 




Harry Manning died on the 13th of November 1922. An innocent civilian, he was not a member of either the National Army or Anti Treaty Army, he was walking along Ulverton Road Dalkey County Dublin when he was caught in the cross-fire when Anti Treaty forces ambushed a party of National Army troops taking a prisoner to Dalkey barracks. A soldier of the National Army, Samuel Webb, died in the same ambush.

 Harry Manning was 43 years old and was returning to his home at Bullock Harbour when he was killed, he was buried in Dean’s Grange Cemetery, his grave is unmarked but by virtue of the surrounding graves being bordered the plot he is buried in is clearly distinguishable. 


On the 14th of November 1922 an inquest was held in Waterford into the death of Pawn Shop owner Charles Reginald Boyce who was shot dead in his shop on Michael Street Waterford. A witness told the inquest that three men enter the shop shortly after 5.30pm and looked a several pairs of field glasses, the witness went to another part of the shop and shortly after heard a scuffle followed by a shot. 


On Wednesday the 15th of November 1922 the Evening Herald reported on the inquest of 3 year old Eileen O’Driscoll from Cork who died as a result of a bullet wound. Other children in the household threw a live bullet into the kitchen fire, the bullet exploded killing the little girl. The other children had found several bullets discarded in a graveyard at Riverstown County Cork. A verdict of accidental death was recorded.


On Saturday the 18th of November 1922 Lily Bennett, a domestic servant, employed at the Presbytery Aughrim Street Dublin, was shot and fatally wounded as she stepped of a tram on O’Connell Street Dublin. She was a native of Kinnegad, County Meath. She received a bullet wound to the back, she was taken to Jervis Street Hospital where she died the next day. A newsboy shot in the same incident was in a grave condition while three other civilian caught up in the same incident were progressing favourably.


On the morning of Sunday the 3rd of December 1922 the body of James Cleary was found by his brother on his way to mass. Evidence given at the inquest into Cleary’s death heard that an armed man had called to the house of his employed, the armed men asked for Cleary by name but Cleary denied knowing anyone of that name in the area, the armed man left but returned a few minutes later and abducted Cleary.

Cleary’s brother gave evidence that a note was found around his brother’s neck saying Convicted spy. Spies and traitors beware. The first of many. I.R.A. Cleary’s brother stated that Cleary had no political views or connections, it is believed he was shot because he was employed by Vice-Commandant in the National Army. 



At about 7pm on Monday the 4th of December 1922 Angela Bridgeman of 23 Ranelagh Road Dublin was shot dead when she was hit during an attack on National Troops on Harcourt Street Dublin. She was employed as a waitress in the Mountclare Hotel Clare Street. 



On the morning of Monday the 4th of December a large force of Anti-Treaty Troops attacked the village of Ballymakeera about nine miles from Macroom in County Cork. The Anti-Treaty Troops used a stolen armoured car. The village was captured by the Anti-Treaty Troops and a civilian, Cornelius O’Leary, was killed during the assault. The village was re-taken by the national Army later that day.


On Saturday night the 9th of December 1922 a young man named James Malone was taken from his home in Cork and shot dead. He received up to ten bullet wounds and died instantly. Malone was 24 years old and unmarried, he lived in Gerald Griffin Avenue on the north side of the city. 



On the night of Sunday the 10th of December five armed men call at the house of TD Sean McGarry, on the pretence of delivering a letter to her husband an armed man forced his way into the hall accompanied by four others. Despite the pleas of Mrs. McGarry that three children were in the upstairs bedroom the men doused the hall and stairs with petrol and set it alight and broke the windows to ensure the flams would spread. Twins Sadi and Emmet aged seven, Sadi was an invalid, were both taken to hospital, Desmond, whose injuries were not serious, was not taken to hospital. Emmet died on the 14th.


On Monday the 18th of December Martin Joyce junior was shot dead at his home in Maumtrasna County Mayo. A man armed with a rifle called to the farm house at about 3am, he asked for Martin Joyce junior by name and inquired if Joyce had owned a revolver during the Black and Tan War, Joyce replied he did not and had never held a gun in his life. The man left but returned a short time later again asking to speak to Joyce. The man pointed the rifle at Joyce who appealed for time to see a Priest but the man fired wounding Joyce mortally.  Although Joyce’s father travelled several miles to get a Priest Joyce was dead when the Priest arrived.


On Wednesday the 20th of December 1922 former Dail member James O’Dwyer was shot dead in his shop at 5 Rathmines Road Dublin. At about 4.50pm Mr O’Dwyer was talking to a customer when a young man enter the shop, addressing O’Dwyer the young man asked ‘are you Mr O’Dwyer’ O’Dwyer replied yes and the young man said I have a note for you, the young man reached into the pocket of his overcoat a drew a revolved, He fired twice and O’Dwyer at point-blank range. O’Dwyer died instantly. The customer and a shop assistant gave chase but were unable to catch the assassin.

 Mr O’Dwyer was married with no children. He was a member of the Second Dail and a strong supporter of the Treaty. He was a member of the Peace Committee of ten men which sat in May 1922 which brought about the agreement between Collins and de Valera, he was a personal friend of Michael Collins. 



On the morning of Saturday the 30th of December 1922 the body of John Doyle, an ex-Service man aged 35, was found on the roadside a few miles from Castlebellingham County Louth. There were three bullet wounds in the body. Doyle’s body was found with a note attached saying ‘Convicted Spy’, Doyle was employed as a farm labourer. A military witness told the inquest that on the Sunday before Doyle was killed the Military had compelled him to direct them to a house in the neighbourhood and it was believed this was the reason he was executed as a spy. 



On Friday the 5th of January 1923 Edward Snoddy of Quinagh County Carlow was shot dead during a raid by an armed gang on the house of Mr. E. S. Maffett a solicitor of Thornville, Palatine, County Carlow. 



On Wednesday the 1th of January two commercial travellers were ambushed on the road between Swinford Road, Kiltimagh, Co. Mayo. Mr. Christopher Farrell of Waterloo Road Dublin, a representative of John Power and Son whiskey distillers was killed and his travelling companion Edward Harris of Rathgar seriously wounded.


Edward Quirk, aged 11, of Bansha, County Tipperary, shot in the head during the siege of Ashgrove House. The boy was standing in his father’s yard talking to a National Army soldier when Irregulars in the house fired on the National Army soldier the boy was hit, he died about half an hour later. After the Irregulars surrendered the house a machine-gun and three drums of ammunition were found concealed in a chimney.


On the Railway line at Liscahane a short distance from the Tralee side of Ardfert County Kerry a party of between twenty and thirty armed men held up the Miles-man whose duty it was to hold up a green light to indicate all was well, the Miles-man was held prisoner while the armed men removed some of the rails from the right side of the railway line, the rails were removed from the right side to ensure the train would topple over and fall down an embankment. The train was hauling twenty-six goods wagons and a guards van. Two men were killed:

  • Diver Patrick O’Riordan, he was 50 years old, married with five children and a native of Tralee. During the War of Independence he a member of the local I.R.A. and using his position as an engine-driver delivered dispatches, on one occasion he and his fireman were strip-searched by Crown Forces but managed to conceal the dispatch he was carrying and delivered it safely to its destination. He died instantly when crushed by the wreckage and suffering severe burns and scalding.

  • Fireman Daniel Crowley aged 36 from Lower Road Cork. He was a member of the I.R.A. during the War of Independence delivering dispatches and was involved in the fighting against Crown Forces. He was unmarried and the sole supported of his mother and widowed sister with five children. Severely scaled from the steam and boiling water from the engine he survived for several hours before succumbing to his injuries.


On Tuesday the 23rd of January engine-drivers Dan Daly and Dan Lynch were chatting on the road outside Tralee Railway Station when they were approached by two men wearing trench-coats. The two men asked the engine-drivers to identify themselves and when the engine-drivers reply the two men drew revolvers and fired, Daly was hit under the heart and died on Wednesday morning from his wounds. Daniel (Dan) Daly was a native of Killorglin and left a wife and four children.

In evidence given at the inquest into the death of Driver Daniel Daly Brigadier O’Daly, O.C. Kerry Command gave evidence of four men being arrested in connection with the killing of Daly, papers found on two of those arrested showed Daly was shot because he refused to assist in dismantling railway engines at Tralee railway station and also refusing to assist in the kidnapping of a National Army officer and refusing to assist in attacking the military post at Tralee. The jury returned a verdict of wilful murder.


On Saturday the 27th of January William McGowan, aged 24 of 33 Upper Gardener Street was shot dead in the Phoenix Park Dublin. He was shot by Sergeant Green who was in charge of the National Army guard on the railway near the park tunnel. The inquest into McGowan’s death heard that McGowan was seen looking into the tunnel and when he did not answer a challenge from the National Army guard Sergeant Green took a rifle from one of the guards and fired at McGowan hitting him in the head and killing him instantly. McGowan was employed as a carpenter with the Midland and Great Western Railway.


Miss Cissie Ryan died on Wednesday the 31st of January from a bullet wound received on the 23rd of January while in the company of an off duty National Army soldier. The pair were walking on Wilkin Street, Waterford when they were attacked by three armed man. The soldier returned fire hitting one of the attackers who fled when he returned fire.


In reprisal for the shooting of Anti-Treaty soldier Michael Cull 50 Anti-Treaty forces raided the village of Ballyconnell murdering two civilians. At Ovens grocery shop where Cull was shot dead the owner was shot in the leg and an employee William Ryan was dragged out and murdered on the street. The second man, Sean McGrath, an Irish Language teacher originally from Galway, was dragged from his bed at his lodging and murdered.


On the 24th of February John Conway was shot dead by Captain Patrick Byrne of the National Army at the Tralee Workhouse County Kerry, the official report at the time stated that Conway was shot while attempting to escape lawful Army custody. The Inquest into Conway’s death heard from General Padraig O’Daly who gave evidence at the Inquest that Byrne had admitted to him that he shot Conway because he had caused trouble to others (the inquest did not hear details of what these troubles were) and that Conway was not attempting to escape. John Conway was from Caherina, Tralee County Kerry. The Inquest Jury returned the verdict that Conway died from bullet wounds inflicted by Captain Patrick Byrne for which there was no cause or justification. The medical evidence stated that Conway had six entrance and four exit wounds.

Dorothy McArdle in her book Tragedies of Kerry 1922-1923 and the Republican periodical Éire The Irish Nation, volume 1 number 14, 21st April 1923 state that Conway was a member of the Tralee Battalion Anti-Treaty I.R.A. The newspapers of the time stated Conway was a civilian, he name does not appear on the list of members of the Tralee Brigade Anti-Treaty I.R.A. published by the Irish Military Archive.



On Saturday the 17th of March 1923 a civilian was shot dead by a Free State soldier in Nenagh County Tipperary. Witnesses at the inquest stated that the soldier emerged from O’Carroll’s Public House and hit newsboy Stephen Scallan of John’s Lane Nenagh on the head and fire a shot across his face demanding to know who had fired a shot. Passer-by Patrick Hogan challenged the soldier asking why the soldier had struck the boy, the soldier then instructed Scallan to raise his hands before firing two shots into Scallan killing him instantly. 


On the evening of Monday the 19th Rose Anne Hamill aged 8 received injuries from which she died when with her sister Eva aged 10 a bomb they had found exploded. The children were playing not far from their home in Rathduff County Louth, it was not clear if they were examining or playing with the bomb which was described a crudely made and not of a military pattern. 



On Tuesday the 22nd of March 1922 Owen McGuinness was shot dead at his home in Latton South Monaghan when several armed men called to his house demanding entry after 11pm. When he opened the door several shots were fired, he died from a bullet wound to the head. 



On Thursday the 22nd of March 1923 the Irish Times reported that the inquest into the murder of Nicholas Corcoran formally a clerk in the National Bank in Ballina County Mayo three of the jury members failed to attend after a notice ‘Beware of the Verdict’ appeared on the Cathedral gate. The body of Corcoran had been interred and the Coroner stated that if the jurors who were present at the original hearing did not attend the proceedings would collapse. 


On Friday evening March 23rd 1923 four gunmen enter the premises of the James’ Gate Workman’s Thrift Society Dublin and at the point of a revolver forced the treasure to hand over £120. Joined by a sergeant of the National Army two members of the society followed the gunmen and using a dummy pistol attempted to recover the money. They stopped the gunmen on the banks of the canal near Rialto. One of the society members was shot dead and the National Army sergeant was wounded. The dead man was:  • Bernard McGuili. 



On Wednesday the 28th of March 1923 an inquest into the death of William Johnson was held at Jervis Street Hospital. Johnson, who was a member of the Civil Defence Corps, was shot dead in the Theatre Royal Dublin on Tuesday night by Lieutenant Frank Teeling of the National Army. Witnesses stated that an altercation had taken place between the two men, Teeling it was stated was drunk at the time. Johnson was unmarried and 31 years old. 



On Saturday the 31st of March 1923 the body Robert Bonfield was found on the farm of Mr. John Dowling, Newlands Villa, Colndalkin, County Dublin. He had been shot in the face and chest. The Inquest into the circumstances of his death heard it was reported to Commandant James McAnulty, Tallaght Camp, that the body was found, Commandant McAnulty went to the scene, he reported that the body was found lying in a ditch about 400 yards from the road, the body was on its left side with the knees drawn up and the hands clasped in front.

Robert Bonfield’s father identified the body and stated that his son was 20 years old, unmarried and that he was a dental student at the National University. 



On Sunday the 1st of April 1923 Bernard Morris of Creevekeeran Culloville County Armagh was shot dead, he was 23 years old. He was shot while the National Army were conducting a raid on a dance hall on the border. 



On Tuesday the 3rd of April 1923 two men were found murdered in Dublin. Just before midnight a Dublin Metropolitan Policeman on duty at the back gate of the Viceregal Lodge in the Phoenix Park was informed by a member of the public that a man had been murdered on the Navan Road. The Guard of the Viceregal Lodge was immediately Turned Out and the body of Joseph Kernan was found riddled with bullets. A resident of the Cabra reported that five or six shots had been fired shortly before midnight and a car, with brilliant headlights was seen driving away in the direction of the city. A piece of paper with J Kernan 40 Upper Mercer Street was found on Kernan’s body.

At about 11.30pm on the same night an armoured car from the Viceregal Lodge was patrolling the area when it was stopped near Mooney’s Farm by a woman who reported that a man had been shot near the Deaf and Dumb School. When the armoured car arrived at the scene the body of a young man was found on the roadside. The body was dressed in Army breeches with civilian boots and black leggings, a portion of the head was blown away and the face was unrecognisable. Although the body was unidentified at the time it was later identified as that of Christopher Breslin.

Rumours were rife in Dublin that the two men were shot by a murder gang linked to Army Intelligence possibly Oriel House. The Army later issued a letter denying all knowledge or any connection with the killings. I have been unable to find ant evidence that either men were connected with an political group. Christopher Breslin was buried in the republican plot in Glasnevin.


  • Christopher Breslin was 23 years old and employed as a labourer, he lived at 9 Mount Temple Road, Manor Street Dublin.
  •  Joseph Kernan was 19 years old and employed as a messenger, he lived at 40 Upper Mercer Street. 



On the 4th of April the Freeman’s Journal reported on the death of Robert Bondfield of 103 Moyne Road Rathmines, his body was found in a field on Saturday afternoon, he was 20 years old, unmarried and a Dental student in his third year at college.  


About 8.30pm on Saturday the 21st of April John Melvin, Corremble, Ballina, County Mayo, left his father’s home and his dead body was found on a boreen  the next morning. He had been shot through the head and neck. A note attached to his body read ‘Convicted spy. All spies beware. Sooner or later we will get them. Your brother and sister will get the same fate of they don’t stop giving information.’ John Melvin’s father, who gave evidence at the inquest, stated that his son was never involved in any organisation political or otherwise and was not in a position to give information to the Free State Forces. The Deputy Coroner, Doctor McGuinness said the people who shot the unfortunate man were not only bad enough to perpetrate the shocking deed, but tried to justify it be attaching a label to the body.


On Sunday April the 22nd 1923 aged farmer Patrick Shally of Creagh County Westmeath was shot dead during a raid on his home by three armed men. The armed men entered the farm house at about 10pm, shots were fired during the search as some of the raiders attempted to shoot the locks of two trunks. 



On Sunday the 22nd of April 1923 the body of Martin Hogan was found lying in the water course in the side of Gracepark Road Drumcondra County Dublin. It was believed Hogan had been killed elsewhere and his body dumped on the road. Hogan was believed to be native of Tipperary and had been in Dublin for some time. 



Peter McNicholas was killed on the 26th of April 1923, he was a civilian employee of the National Army’s Paymasters Department. He was travelling with Lieutenant O’Sullivan of the 52nd Infantry Battalion and two soldiers between Claremorris and Kiltamagh County Mayo. As they neared the post office at Murneen a shot was fired, McNicholas, who was sitting beside the driver was hit and killed instantly.  


On the Monday morning of the 30th of April 1923 a farmer named Michael Reynolds of Clooneagh Dromod County Leitrim was shot dead when a part of about twelve men surrounded his house, Reynolds refused to open the door and the men fired on his house, Reynolds was mortally wounded. A bomb was also thrown at the house.