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Volunteers Killed in Action
1. Adams John, Irish Citizen Army Volunteer. Killed in Action on the morning of the 25th of April 1916. Stationed at Stephen’s Green he was killed by sniper fire from the Shelbourne Hotel. He was 38 years old and resided at 10 Cork Street, Dublin. He was married with one child and had served with the I.C.A. for a total of 2 years and 6 months.

2. Allen Thomas, Irish Volunteers. Fatally wounded while fighting in the Four Courts and died on the 28th of April at the Richmond Hospital. He was promoted to Lieutenant on Easter Monday. He was 29 years old and a native of County Meath. He left a widow and 3 children. He was originally buried in Glasnevin Cemetery, on the 6th of January 1917 his body was removed to Longwood Moyvally County Meath where his remains were re-interred.

William Francis Burke

3. Burke William Francis (Frank) Section Commander, C Company, 4th Battalion, Dublin Brigade, Irish Volunteers. Born in 1897 died on the 25th of April 1916. Aged about 19 years old at the time of the Rising. Killed in Action on the 25th of April 1916 at 7.30am. He was in the South Dublin Union when a British sniper concealed in the Maternity Hospital, which was a few yards from the Nurses Home where Burke was, fired a shot. The shot entered the window of the Nurses Home hitting Burke. Burke had escaped unscathed from the severe fighting at Mount Brown the previous day. He was a half-brother of Philip B Cosgrave who fought at Marrowbone Lane who was a brother of W. T. Cosgrave who fought at the South Dublin Union. 

4. Byrne James (19) shot in the Jacob’s Factory area. He was single, worked as a grocer’s porter, his last known address is recorded as 31 Lower Stephen Street Dublin. He was shot on the 27th but as no burials took place during the Rising his funeral did not take place until May 2nd. He is buried in Glasnevin Cemetery Saint Paul’s section PA38.

5. Byrne Andrew Joseph Irish Volunteers, died from wounds received in Action on the 27th of April 1916 in the Boland’s Mill area, a native of County Wicklow he left a wife a two year old son.

Andrew Joseph Byrne is buried in a mass grave in Deansgrange cemetery Dublin. The grave also contains the remains of Volunteer Sean Costello, a British soldier Scots Guard Peter Ennis and three civilians John Kenyon, Joseph Clarke and William Carrick all killed in the Rising.

6. Byrne Louis, Private, 1st Company, Irish Citizen Army. Killed in Action on the evening of the 24th of April 1916, he was stationed in City Hall when he was fatally wounded when shots were fired from Dublin Castle. He was aged 46, married and a cabinet maker. He came from Summerhill Dublin and had been a member of the Irish Citizen Army for 10 months. He left a wife and five children. He is buried in the 1916 plot in Glasnevin Cemetery.

7.
Carrigan Charles Edward (Also known under the names Christopher, Cormac and Charles Corrigan) Irish Volunteers, Killed in Action in the evacuation of the General Post office on the 28th of April 1916. A member of the Scottish Division of the Irish Volunteers based at the home of Count Plunkett from where they prepared for the Rising. He died on Moore Street aged 34. He was president of a Sinn Fein Cumann (Branch) in Glasgow during the years 1908 to 1910.

8. Clarke Philip, Citizen Army. Killed in Action on the 25th of April 1916, stationed at Stephen’s Green he was killed by firing from the Shelbourne Hotel. He was aged 40 and lived in Cork Street, Dublin. He was married and had been a member of the Irish Citizen Army for 2 years and six months. He was employed as a Van Driver and left a widow and eight children. He was a native of Slane County Meath.
On the Tuesday morning of the Rising shortly after dawn Philip Clarke and John McDonnell under the command of Thomas O’Donoghue were removing chains to strengthen the barricades outside the Shelbourne Hotel from the outside of Stephen’s Green. As they did so a head appeared at one of the upper floor windows, Thomas O’Donoghue called on the other two men to retreat back into the Green, so intent on his work Philip Clarke did not hear the order to retreat, shots rang out and he was mortally wounded.

Sean Connolly 

9. Connolly Sean (John) Citizen Army, Killed in Action at City Hall when fired on from a Military Wagon in Castle Street. Aged 33, married he was a member of the Irish Citizen Army for 2 years and six months, he held the rank of Captain. He led the attack on Dublin Castle on Easter Monday and subsequently the attack on City Hall where he was Killed in Action. He came from Fairviwe and was a Dublin Corporation Official. He was a member of the Pioneer Total Abstinence Association and an elocutionist, and had frequently appeared on concert platforms with the Abbey Theatre Company and The National Players. He was famous around Dublin for his recitations of “The Man from God Knows Where” and “When I was 21.”

James Corcoran

10. Corcoran James Citizen Army. Killed in Action Stephen’s Green. He had served with the Irish Citizen Army for six months and was 33 years old. He left a widow and three children and was a native of Gorey County Wexford.

11. Cosgrave Edward. Private, Irish Citizen Army. Died on the 25th of April 1916. Killed in action during the fighting at the G.P.O. Aged 43 years old at the time of his death. Employed as a rope maker at the time of the Rising, married with four children.  

12. Costello Edward J. Fatally wounded in the Church Street Area, died in Jervis Street Hospital on the 25th of April 1916. He was a native of Armagh.


Sean Costello
 
13. Costello Sean  (John)  Lieutenant, Irish Volunteers. Killed in Action while carrying dispatches to Boland’s Mill on the 26th of April 1916, originally a member of the Athlone Volunteers he had been in Dublin for some time. Shot and fatally wounded by a British Soldier he was taken to Sir Patrick Dun’s Hospital where he died. Sean Costello is buried in a mass grave in Deansgrange cemetery Dublin. The grave also contains the remains of Volunteer Andrew Joseph Byrne, a British soldier Scots Guard Peter Ennis and three civilians John Kenyon, Joseph Clarke and William Carrick all killed in the Rising.

His name is also recorded on the headstone in the Republican Plot in Deansgrange.


14. Coyle Henry (Harry) Irish Volunteers, Killed in Action on the 28th of April 1916 in Henry Place which is just off Henry Street close to O’Connell Street. He was 28 years old and worked as a Slater. He was a member of F Company Second Battalion Irish Volunteers. He was married, he was resident at Leinster Avenue, North Strand, Dublin at the time of his death.

15. Crenigan (Crinigan) John Irish Volunteers. Killed in Action at the battle of Ashbourne County Meath. He was originally from Swords County Dublin. He was 21 years old when he died. He was an Irish speaker. His brother James Crenigan also fought in the Rising at the Mendicity Institute.

16. Cromien John Irish Volunteers. Killed in Action, Prussia Street by a British sniper, aged 23, born in Dublin and worked as a messenger. Buried in Glasnevin Cemetery.


Andrew Cunningham

17. Cunningham Andrew, Died May 1st 1916 aged 26. He was a Silk Weaver by trade and was born in Dublin. The wooden cross which marked his grave has been replaced with a proper headstone by the National Graves Association, he is buried in Deansgrange cemetery, Dublin.
Andrew Cunningham is not always recorded as a Volunteers killed while taking part in the Rising. The Glasnevin Necrology Wall lists him as a civilian.

The Glasnevin Trust pointed out that the evidence available did not support the assertion that Cunningham fought during the 1916 Rising.

  • Cunningham was not listed in the military archives in 1957 as having died as a volunteer in the Rising, he was not included in the official list of casualties in 1966 compiled by the Irish Army and neither was he listed in the roll call of Irish Volunteers who died in the Rising which was called out on New Year’s Day 2016 at the State commemoration event in Dublin Castle.
  • Cunningham’s wife received £273 from the British government as compensation for his death which would not have been awarded to her if he had died as a Volunteer.
  • She was refused aid from the Irish National Aid Association and Volunteers Dependent Fund set up to aid Volunteer families bereaved in the Rising.
  • The military archives, which lists all those on the rebel side who died in the Rising, do not include him, neither does the government’s 1936 roll of honour.


His name is also not listed on what is reported to be the first memorial card issued on All Souls Day 1916 which was about the 1st of November 1916. The card lists all those who died in the fighting or were executed.
This is a later memorial card, possibly 1941 for the 25th anniversary of the Rising. Again it does not list Andrew Cunningham although John Cromean who was recorded on the 1916 memorial card as John Dromean is recorded correctly on this one.


He is recorded as being a member of the Volunteer in the Last Post published in 1932.

He is also recorded as being Killed in Action in witness statement WS Ref # 1686 Ruaidhri Henderson son of Frank Henderson, Frank Henderson Captain F Company 2nd Battalion Dublin Brigade Irish Volunteers who fought in the G.P.O. Ruaidhri Henderson compiled the statement on the instructions of Colonel T Gallagher for a historical exhibition held at the Military Tattoo in 1945.

His name is also recorded on the headstone in the Republican Plot in Deansgrange.

18. D'arcy Charles Citizen Army Killed in Action on Parliament Street Dublin on the 24th of April 1916 by a sniper in the clock tower of Dublin Castle. He was single and worked as a Draper's Assistant in Pim's department store, South Great George's Street, Dublin. He had served with the Irish Citizen Army for 2 years and six months. He lived at 4 Murphy’s Cottages Fairview Dublin. He was 15 years old when he was killed.

19. Donelan Brendan Irish Volunteers, born near Loughrea County Galway. Volunteer, “D” Company, Dublin Brigade, Irish Volunteers. Born in 1898. Killed in Action at the South Dublin Union, he was 18 years old and was a Draper's assistant at Gorevan Brothers, drapers, Camden Street, Dublin. He was on his way to report for duty at the South Dublin Union when he was shot on the first day of the Rising, 24th of April. He had been living in Dublin for about 4 years and had only joined the Volunteers a few months before the Rising.


Patrick Doyle 

Patrick Doyle and his son are buried in St. Nahi’s Churchyard, Dundrum

20. Doyle Patrick. Second Lieutenant, E Company, 3rd Battalion, Dublin Brigade, Irish Volunteers. Killed in Action at Clanwilliam House, aged 35 he was a musketry instructor with the Irish Volunteers. He was killed on the 26th of April 1916. He left a widow and five children. His youngest son Joseph was born on the 26th of April 1915. His son Private Patrick Doyle of the 2nd Eastern Division Óglaigh na hÉireann was killed in action on the 7th of July 1922 at Blessington County Wicklow, he was 18 years old and has served with the I.R.A. during the War of Independence and had been a member of Fianna Eireann.


21. Dwan John Irish Volunteers. Killed in Action in North King Street on the 27th of April, he was a member of the Pioneer Temperance Association and employed by the Inchicore Railway Works. He was 25 years old.


Edward Ennis

Edward Ennis is buried in Glasnevin cemetery Dublin.
Photo Des White
22. Ennis Edward. “D” Company, 3rd Battalion, Dublin brigade, Irish Volunteers. Killed in Action near Boland’s Mill on the 29th of April. Born in 1884 He was 33 years old, he was a member of the Pioneer Temperance Association and employed as a chimney cleaner. The official record states that he was shot by a Sentry while suffering from overstrain. The record does not state if it was a British Army or Rebel sentry.

23. Farrell Patrick Irish Volunteers. Killed in Action on the 30th of April 1916 in Church Street, he was 19 years old. He was a native of Dublin and was a Plasterer by trade.


James Fox


24. Fox James Joseph 1st Battalion Dublin Brigade Irish Volunteer . Killed in Action on the 25th of April 1916 aged 16 years old. James Fox was born in the Spencer Arms Hotel, Drumree, County Meath where his father was proprietor. He attended school in Dunshaughlin and later was educated by the Christian Brothers at Marino. He was stationed at the north side of St. Stephen’s Greens, near the Grafton Street Gate, in a trench opposite the United Service Club. Early on Tuesday morning he was returning to his post with a cup of tea when he was hit by a bullet fired from the direction of the Shelbourne Hotel. He was single and worked as a Grocer’s Assistant. He was a member of the 1st Battalion Dublin Brigade Irish Volunteer but requested to fight along side the Irish Citizen Army.  He was living in the Thomas Street area of Dublin at the time of the Rising He is buried in the family plot at Knockmark County Meath. 

25. Geoghegan George Citizen Army. Killed in Action at the City Hall on the 27th of April 1916 aged 36, he was shot through the head. He had been a Volunteer with the Irish Citizen Army for 2 years and 6 months. He was a member of the Gaelic League and the Saint James’s Band. He left a widow and three children.


John Healy



John Healy is buried in Glasnevin cemetery Dublin.
Grave photo Des White
26. Healy John Fianna Éireann, fatally wounded in the Phibsborough area on the 25th of April 1916, he died two days later on the 27th in the Mather Hospital. He was 14 years old and had been a member of Na Fianna for 3 years. He was a an apprentice to his father who was a Plumber and was from 188 Phibsborough Road Dublin. He is buried in Glasnevin Cemetery.

27. Howard Sean Bernard(John) Fianna Éireann, 26 Temple Cottages, Broadstone. He was fatally wounded in Church Street and died on the 29th of April in the Richmond Hospital. He was a member of the Na Fianna Pipe Band. He was 17 year old and spent time in London as a boy clerk in 1914, he returned to Dublin in 1915 where he worked with the Land Commission and then the Congested Districts Board, early in 1916 he went to work for the Dublin Corporation.

28. Hurley John (Sean) Irish Volunteers, fought in the Four Courts area where he was severely wounded in the head, he died on the 29th of April 1916 in the Richmond Hospital, he was 29 years old. He was active in the Gaelic League and the Irish Volunteers in London before coming to Dublin. He worked in the Drapery Trade in Dublin. As a boy he attended Drinagh School County Cork.

29. Kavanagh Ernest, Killed in Action near Liberty Hall on the 25th of April 1916. He was 32 years old and a noted writer and cartoonist. He lived in Oxford Road Renelagh. He is buried in Glasnevin cemetery.



John Keely is buried in Dean’s Grange Cemetery, Dublin.
30. Keely John (Jack) Irish Volunteers, Killed in Action on the 26th of April 1916 at the General Post Office, educated by the Christian Brothers’ and taught Irish in Dun Laoghaire and he assisted Francis Macken with an Irish class in Saint Enda’s Rathfarnham. He was originally from Rockbrook, Ballyboden, Dublin, lived in Kingstown (Dun Laoghaire) and left a widow. John Keely was fatally wounded when, with a group of Volunteers from Rathfarnham, who had arrived late at the GPO, the Volunteers ware attempting to enter the GPO through one of the ground floor windows, as Keely jumped to the window sill he dropped his rifle and when the stock hit the ground the rifle went off, the bullet ripped through his thigh and he fell mortally wounded.

31. Kelly James, died on the 25th of April, member of na Fianna Eireann. He was 15 years old when he was killed and lived at 205 Phibsborough Road Dublin.

32. Keogh Gerald Irish Volunteers, Killed in Action outside Trinity College on the 25th of April, he was 22 years old. He was a member of Na Fianna and the Volunteers. He was educated at the Christian Brothers Synge Street and attended St. Enda’s. Born 1894.

With two other Volunteers he was delivering dispatches to the G.P.O., they were cycling past Trinity Collage at about 4am Tuesday morning when they came under very heavy fire, contemporary reports state that up to 16 soldiers stationed at the windows and on the roof of the Collage opened fire on the three Volunteers. It is believed that Keogh was shot by a Corporal John Garland N.Z.M.C. from Auckland, New Zealand although Corporal Finlay McLeod N.Z.E. from Milton, New Zealand also claimed to have shot Keogh. Keogh was hit by four bullets and his body was left in a room in the College for three days, he is buried in Glasnevin Cemetery.

There are several accounts which differ in relation as to where Keogh was delivering the dispatches. Different version state he was delivering dispatches to Larkfield Mill Kimmage or to deliver a message from Pearse to Countess Markievicz in Stephen’s Green. Accounts of Keogh’s death given by those in Trinity Collage state the group were travelling towards the G.P.O. which would suggest they were returning to the G.P.O. after delivering their dispatches.

Gerald Keogh’s brother John Baptist Keogh was killed on the 25th of October 1914 while fighting in WW1, he served with the 2nd Battalion The Royal Irish Rifles and is commemorated on the Le Touret Memorial.


33. Lynch Patrick. Private Irish Citizen Army. Born on the 3rd of July 1870 died on the 28th of April 1916. He was aged 45 years old when he died. Employed at Palgrave and Murphy Limited, 17 Eden Quay, Dublin at the time of the Rising. He was killed in the evacuation of the G.P.O. on the Friday of the Rising, he was hit by a bullet in the neck between Henry Place and Moore Street outside the O’Brien’s Mineral Water factory. He had returned from Scotland a few days before the Rising.


34. Macken Francis Irish Volunteers. Killed in Action at the General Post Office. He was an active member of the Irish Volunteers. He trained his men to obey orders given in Irish and with Volunteer John Keely gave Irish language classes at Rathfarnham College. He was killed when, with other Volunteers including The O’Rahilly, they were trying to force an opening in the British barricade on Moore Street. The group was raked with machine gun fire and forced to retreat. He had a hairdressing shop in Rathfarnham. He was a member of “E” Company 4th Battalion Dublin Brigade.


35. Macken Peadar (Peter) Captain, B Company, Dublin Brigade, Irish Volunteers. Killed in Action on Clarence Street (now Macken Street) at the back of Boland’s Mill. He was shot in the stomach. His remains were taken to the Dispensary in Grand Canal Street where they were temporarily buried, was active in the Labour Movement as well as Gaelic circles and a prominent figure at the Irish-Ireland gatherings. He was Alderman in the Dublin Corporation North Dock Ward for a number of years. He was a member of the I.R.B. (Irish Republican Brotherhood) and prominently involved in the setting up of the Irish Volunteers and spoke at the inaugural meeting held in the Rotunda. His sister Mary Macken was a member of Cumann na mBan.

 

At a recent auction at Spink in New York where Peter Macken’s medals were auctioned the following account was given of Mackens death: On Wednesday 26th April one of the Volunteers guarding a gate at the bakery started to act strangely and G.A. Lyons asked him to take a rest. He refused, and when Lyons went elsewhere Macken was left in charge. He again asked the man to take a rest. Upon this the sentry went crazy and shot Macken through the heart. I have no idea if this is true and apart from the auction description I have never heard this account before.


36. Malone Michael Irish Volunteers. Killed in Action in the fighting at Northumberland Road. Aged 28 he was a member of the Irish Volunteer Cyclist section, he was a carpenter by trade.

37. Manning Peter Paul Irish Volunteers. Fatally wounded in the fighting in North Brunswick Street on the 29th of April 1916. He was 25 years old.


38. McCormack James, Officer, Irish Citizen Army. Killed in Action on the 25th of April 1916, shot by a sniper in the North City area. He had been with the Irish Citizen Army for 2 years and 6 months. He worked as a labourer, was married and lived in Sutton Cottages Baldoyle.

39. McDowell William Irish Volunteers. Killed in Action in the fighting at the South Dublin Union. He was a painter by trade and left a wife and four children.

40. Mulvihill Michael Irish Volunteers, Killed in Action in the General Post Office. He was a native of Ardoughter, Ballyduff County Kerry, Ireland.

41. Murphy Richard Irish Volunteers. Killed in Action in the battle of Mount Street Bridge.

42. Murray Daniel Citizen Army. Fatally wounded at the Royal College of Surgeons and died later in Saint Vincent’s Hospital Dublin. He was 27 years old and employed as a bookbinder.


43. O’Carroll Richard (Dick)Irish Volunteers. Fatally wounded in Camden Street on the 26th of April 1916, he was travelling along Camden Street when he was pulled from his motor cycle combination by a British officer Captain Bowen-Colthurst and shot, he died nine days later in Portobello Hospital. He was a member of Dublin Corporation where he represented the Labour Party for several years. He was an active official of the Incorporated Brick and Stone layer’s Union. He left a widow and seven children whose ages ranged from thirteen years to a few weeks.


Patrick O'Connor
44. O’Connor Patrick Irish Volunteers. Killed in Action on the 28th of April near the General Post Office. He was a native of Rathmore County Kerry. He entered the Civil Service in London at the age of 18 and was employed by the Post Office in London from 1900 to 1912. In 1912 he was transferred to the Post Office in Dublin at at once became involved in the Gaelic Athletic and the Irish Ireland circles. On the Good Friday before the Rising he attended the funeral his brother Kevin in Kerry. He received an urgent message on Easter Saturday to return to Dublin. He arrived at the G.P.O. on Easter Monday night and with a number of others was greeted by Pearse holding a candle. He was posted to Clery’s Department Store where he spent most of Tuesday boring holes through the building to maintain communications. Wednesday was spent helping to keep the numerous fires under control, the raging fires were treating their line of retreat and by Thursday it was decided to abandon their position and crossing Earl Street they made for Cathedral Place, early Friday morning as Patrick O’Connor went to assess their position, he was last seen making his was along Thomas Lane. 

45. O’Flanagan Patrick Irish Volunteers “C” Company. Killed in Action in the fighting in North King Street. Sent to Father Matthew Hall for ammunition which he was unable to obtain he was killed when re-entering O’Reilly’s Fort. He had been a member of the Irish Volunteers since its inception. He was a member of the Pioneer Temperance Association. He left a widow and three children.

46. O’Grady John Irish Volunteers, Fatally wounded by shots fired by British Troops occupying a house in Leeson Street, he was with a reconnaissance party sent out from Jacob’s Factory. He was brought back the Jacob’s by his comrades and then to the Adelaide Hospital where he died after treatment.

47. O’Neill Wicks Arthur , also known as Weekes, Weeks and Wicks and went under the names Neale, Neil and O’Neill. Killed in Action During the evacuation of the Metropole when a carelessly discharged shotgun or a stray British sniper bullet exploded an ammunition pouch spraying shrapnel in all directions. The Irish Worker (No.43. Saturday, May 3rd 1924) states that A. Weeks was a Jewish comrade who joined on Easter Monday and died in action. He was from Norwich England and was the son of a boot maker. Neale was stationed in the Hotel Metropole garrison under the command of Lieutenant Oscar Traynor and Charles Saurin. He acted as lookout, sitting “on the parapet on the top floor, scanning O’Connell Street with a pair of field – glasses” . He also allegedly “took ‘pot-shots’ at nelson’s nose on the pillar until Connolly told him to desist.”

48. O'Rahilly M J (The) Citizen Army. Killed in Action in Henry Place opposite the General Post Office while evacuating from the GPO where he had been engaged in the fighting all of Easter Week. British military prisoners who had been captured were in the care of The O’Rahilly and all agreed he was very considerate to all the captives. The title ‘The O’Rahilly’ derives from his claim that he was the head Clan O’Rahilly from Kerry. He was an ardent worker with the Gaelic League and a keen Irish language enthusiast. Although he spent most of Easter Sunday countermanding the mobilisation order when the Rising started he immediately volunteered his services at the GPO. He left a widow and five children.

John O'Reilly


49. O’Reilly John Irish Citizen Army, Killed in Action on the 24 of April 1916 in City Hall. He was second in command and had taken command after John Connolly was shot only to be shot himself five hours later. He was 30 years old, married and came from Gardiner Street Dublin. He had been a member of the Irish Citizen Army for 2 years and 6 months. He was buried in Dublin Castle, his remains were later reinterred in Glasnevin cemetery. Image courtesy of John O’Grady.

50. O’Reilly Richard Irish Volunteers, the youngest of a family of five. He was killed in the fighting at the South Dublin Union. Two of his brothers were in the British Army, one was killed in France.


Thomas O'Reilly is burined in Galsnevin
51. O'Reilly Thomas. Private, Irish Citizen Army. Died on the 27th of April 1916 in Jervis Street Hospital from wounds received on the 25th of April. Fought at the G.P.O, City Hall in Dame Street and Liberty Hall. He worked as an electrician for Dublin Corporation. He was on his way with a dispatch from Dame Street to the G.P.O. when he received a wound to the abdomen. His brothers Patrick and John O’Reilly also served with the Citizen Army during the Rising.

Sean (John) Owens


52. Owens Sean (John) One of the first casualties of the Rising, Owens was killed in an attack on the South Dublin Union by the 3rd Battalion of the Royal Irish Regiment, less than two hours after Eamon Ceannt led his men into occupation of the building. His grave in the grounds of Steevens Hospital, Dublin. John Owens, an artificial limb maker by trade, was 24 when he died. He lived with his parents at 1 The Coombe.
Buried in a mass grave with 5 British Soldiers and Volunteer Peter Wilson. The graves are situated in the grounds of what was part of Dr. Steeven's Hospital across the road from Heuston Station. The building was occupied for a time by the Eastern Heath Board and is now occupied by the Health Service Executive. The 5 soldiers are:
  • 4628 Private George William Barnett 2nd/8th Bn. Sherwood Foresters.
  • 7022 Private Oscar Bentley 5th Royal Irish Lancers.
  • 9852 Private Michael Carr 3rd Royal Irish Regiment.
  • 9947 Private James Duffy 3rd Royal Irish Regiment.
  • 11162 Private Thomas Treacy 3rd Royal Irish Regiment.

53. Quinn James. Killed in Action in the fighting at the South Dublin Union. A painter by trade he left a widow and young family.

54. Rafferty Thomas Irish Volunteers, Killed in Action in Ashbourne County Meath on the 28th of April 1916 aged 22, he came from Lusk County Dublin and was in the Fingal Battalion Irish Volunteers.

He was a well-known Hurler and a member of the Black Raven Pipers band. He is recorded on the 1911 census as being employed as a Groom/Domestic Servant and living with his parents in Lusk Town. His brother John also took part in the action as Ashbourne.



55. Reynolds George Irish Volunteers. Killed in Action in the Battle of Mount Street Bridge, was section commander of Clanwilliam House which was completely destroyed during the fighting.

56. Ryan Frederick (Freddie) Citizen Army, Killed in Action on the 27th of April 1916. He died on the morning of the 27th when a party of Rebels tried to capture the Russell Court Hotel and dislodge the British Army stationed there. He was 22 years old, single and worked as a boot maker. He came from High Street Dublin and had served in the Irish Citizen Army for 2 years and 3 months.
On the Wednesday Night early thursday morning Freddie Ryan was a member of a party of about twenty Volunteers under the command of Lieutenant Thomas O’Donoghue were ordered to attack the Russell Hotel on Stephen’s Green, information was received that British Troops were occupying the Hotel. The party were ordered to take two shops in Harcourt Street and fire on the Hotel. The party entered the shops but a Volunteer accidentally discharged his weapon In the confusion it was reported that a girl had been shot outside the shops occupied by the Volunteers, the shops were set on fire and the Volunteers retreated back to the College of Surgeons. As the party retreated shots were fired at them from the Sinn Fein Headquarters in 6 Harcourt Street and one of the party was hit. It was ascertained that the man was dead and O’Donoghue ordered that the body be left. On returning to the Collage and reporting the incident Mallin gave the order to return and retrieve the body. Countess Markievicz and William Partridge retrieved the body which was identified as Freddie Ryan.


Patrick Shortis

57. Shortis Patrick. Volunteer, F Company, 2nd Battalion, Dublin Brigade, Irish Volunteers. Born in 1896 died on the 28th of April 1916, aged about 20 years old when he was killed on Moor Street when with The O’Rahilly and other Volunteers they charged out of the G.P.O. in an attempt to break through the British cordon. At 18 years of age he was studying for the priesthood at All-Hallows College, Drumcondra which specialized in training priests for the missions, All-Hollows sent many missionaries to Australia. He did not complete his training for the priesthood and was working in London and came over to Dublin shortly before the Rising.
 
John Traynor 

John Traynor is buried in Glasnevin cemetery Dublin.
58. Traynor John J. Volunteer, “B” Company, 4th Battalion, Dublin Brigade, Irish Volunteers. Killed in Action in the fighting in the South Dublin Union on Easter Monday. He was 19 years old, that Easter Monday was his Birthday. He was born and raised in 3 Shannon Terrace Old Kilmainham, Dublin 8. He was a member of the Geraldine Football Club and the Mount Argus Pioneer Temperance Association. He worked at Arthur Guinness Brewery St. James’s Gate Dublin. His Mother and Father came from Tinahealy and Aughrim in Wicklow. He was less than 400 yards from his family home on the day he was shot.

59. Walsh Edward (Ned), Hibernian Rifles. He was fatally wounded when hit in the stomach while on the roof of Shortalls in Parliament Street. He was with John Joseph Scollan Commandant Hibernian Rifles when he was hit. He was part of a group sent from the G.P.O. early on the Tuesday morning of the Rising to assist Volunteers in City Hall pinned down by British Troops. He was taken to the G.P.O. where he died from his wounds. He was employed as a carter in Macmaster’s, he joined the Hibernian Rifles around the time of the formation of the Irish Volunteers. He left a wife and two children. (He is recorded is some places as a member of the Hibernian Rifles and in others as a member of the Irish Volunteers Maynooth Contingent, his address in the Sinn Fein handbook and in the Glasnevin Cemetery records is recorded as Lower Dominic Street Dublin, I think it is unlikely that a man from Dublin would be in the Maynooth Volunteers.)

Philip Walsh

Philip Walsh is buried in Glasnevin cemetery Dublin.
60. Walsh Philip Irish Volunteers. Fatally wounded at the corner of Church Street and Brunswick Street. He was a sergeant in the Irish Volunteers and a member of Croke Football Club. He was 28 years old when he died.

61. Watson Peter, Killed in Action in area of the Mendicity Institution, he was 40 years old and came from The Green, Swords, County Dublin.


Thomas Weafer
62. Weafer Thomas Joseph Irish Volunteers, Killed in Action on the 26th of April 1916 at the Hibernian Bank on the corner of Sackville Street ( O’Connell Street) and Lower Abbey Street Dublin. He was married, and held the rank of Captain and was in E Company 2nd Battalion Irish Volunteers. Originally from Enniscorthy he resided at 35 North Circular Road and was an upholsterer by trade. he was 26 years old. (Other sources state his age as 35 years old at the time of his death.)

63. Whelan Patrick Irish Volunteers. Killed in Action near Boland’s Mill. He was a member of the Ringsend Gaelic league and a well know hurler. Killed during an exchange of fire on the Wednesday, about 4pm the group of which he was part was ordered to direct heavy fire towards Baggot Street Bridge. It was during this exchange of fire he was hit in the head, just below the eye, he died instantly.



64. Wilson Peter Irish Volunteers, Killed in Action, he was a member of the Fingal Brigade, Irish Volunteers. Part of the Garrison in the Mendicity Institution he was killed when the Institution came under heavy attack on the Wednesday. It was apparent the Volunteers could not hold out much longer so Commandant Heuston ordered an evacuation. All the Volunteers were ordered to assemble in a yard, while on his was to the yard Wilson was shot and mortally wounded.
Peter Wilson is buried in a mass grave with 5 British Soldiers and Volunteer Sean Owens. The graves are situated in the grounds of what was part of Dr. Steeven's Hospital across the road from Heuston Station. The building was occupied for a time by the Eastern Heath Board and is now occupied by the Health Service Executive. The 5 soldiers are:
  • 4628 Private George William Barnett 2nd/8th Bn. Sherwood Foresters.
  • 7022 Private Oscar Bentley 5th Royal Irish Lancers.
  • 9852 Private Michael Carr 3rd Royal Irish Regiment.
  • 9947 Private James Duffy 3rd Royal Irish Regiment.
  • 11162 Private Thomas Treacy 3rd Royal Irish Regiment.


Drowned in Kerry (accidentally, involved in the Aud gun running)


Keating Cornelius. (Con). “F” Company, 1st Battalion, Dublin Brigade, Irish Volunteers. Died on the 21st of April 1916, Killed in Action, Drowned accidentally when car drove from quay into River Laune at Ballykissane pier. He was on a mission from Irish Volunteers General Headquarters, Dublin, to Tralee, County Kerry in connection with Sir Roger Casement's landing in preparation for Easter Rising. He was employed as a Wireless operator at the time of the Rising.


Monaghan Charles

Sheehan Daniel (Domnall). Captain Irish Volunteers, Kimmage Garrison. Died on the 21st of April 1916, Killed in Action, Drowned accidentally when car drove from quay into River Laune at Ballykissane pier. He was on a mission from Irish Volunteers General Headquarters, Dublin, to Tralee, County Kerry in connection with Sir Roger Casement's landing in preparation for Easter Rising. He was employed as a Book keeper at Harrison's of London.



Executed, Cork Jail

Kent Thomas


Died later from wounds or illness received during and after the Rising


Caffrey John. Dublin Brigade, Fianna Eireann. Born in 1899 died on the 31st of October 1933. Fought at Liberty Hall and the G.P.O. Aged 15 years old at the time of the Rising. He died in 1933 as a result of the effects of a bullet wound he received to the left lung on Wednesday the 26th of April 1916 during the fighting at the G.P.O. He was treated at the Mater Hospital, the bullet wound caused severe haemorrhage and it was not possible to remove the bullet which was believed to be embedded in the liver. He was released from the Mater on the 26th of May 1916 his condition on discharge was described as fair. He served throughout the War of Independence and was a member of G Company, 1st Battalion, Dublin Brigade I.R.A. He was interned in Ballykinlar from November 1920 until sometime in 1921, he also served in the Civil War with the Anti-Treaty side.


Cullen John Francis. Lieutenant, D Company, 1st Battalion, Dublin Brigade, Irish Volunteers. Born in 1895 died on the 29th of May 1918, aged about 20 years old at the time of the Rising. Fought at the Mendicity Institute on Usher's Island. After the surrender he was convicted by Court Martial on the 8th of May and sentenced to death, commuted by the General Officer Commanding-in-Chief to 3 years penal servitude. He was deported to Portland and Lewis Prisons. He died on the 29th of May 1918 from Laryngeal Tuberculosis and Septic Pneumonia which was caused by the conditions he had to suffer while in Prison. He was transferred from Lewis prison in April 1917 and sent to Crooksling Sanatorium in Brittas on the Dublin Wicklow border and then to Jervis Street Hospital and then Newcastle Sanatorium in Wicklow, he died at his mother’s home at 80 Prussia Street, Dublin. He joined the Volunteers in 1913 and was a carpenter by trade.


Darcy William. Volunteer, Irish Volunteers. Born in 1874 died on the 24th of December 1918, aged about 42 years old during the Rising. Fought at the G.P.O. Before the Rising he worked for the Great Northern Railway (Ireland) at Dundalk, County Louth. He was Centre for the Count Louth I.R.B. He was deported after the surrender and while detained in Stafford became seriously ill with Double Pneumonia and Rheumatics as a result of exposure suffered while awaiting transfer to detention after the surrender in Dublin, he was treated in Frongoch by medical staff. He died in December 1918 the cause of his death be attributed to the treatment while in custody after the Rising. 


Farrelly Sean. (John). Volunteer, 1st Battalion, Dublin Brigade, Irish Volunteers. Died on the 15th of April 1933. He fought in the area of the Four Courts. He was detained after the surrender and deported to Stafford Jail. He died in 1933, the cause of death was bronchitis and that the conditions of his imprisonment were a major contributing factor to his death. He joined the Volunteers in 1914 and served up to 1919 although during his internment and after release he suffered from poor health. He worked as a Flour blender in Boland's Bakery Dublin. He was married with no children.


Norton Joseph. Mendicity Institute, Irish Volunteers. Died in 1917. He was sentenced to death commuted to three years penal servitude for his part in the Rising. He was deported and held in Lewes Prison and was released under the general amnesty in June 1917. He caught pneumonia while in detention and died from the illness at the end of November 1917. He was from Lispopple in Swords County Dublin and was buried in Swords Cemetery. About 2000 mourners attended the funeral including his brother William who fought at the Battle of Ashbourne during the Rising. The approach to the cemetery was lined with Fianna cyclists and the Fianna buglers played the Last Post and formed a cordon around the graveside.  Other mourners included William Cosgrave M.P., Doctor Hayes, G Plunkett, J Shouldice, H Boland and R Coleman. Among the mourners were about 1,000 Volunteers from the City including a good muster from the Fingal battalion as well as representatives from Skerries, Lusk, The Naul and Saint Margaret’s. Cumann na mBan were also strongly represented as well as ten Fingal Sinn Fein clubs and several GAA clubs.


O’Doherty Michael. Irish Citizen Army. He was severely wounded during the fighting in Easter Week 1916. He never fully recovered from his wounds and died as a result of his wounds on the 22nd of December 1919, he was 40 years old when he died. After the Rising he was interned in Frongoch. He fought in the Stephen’s Green area.


The following is a list of those who died from illness or injury disputed to have been as a result of the Rising. Although family and 1916 comrades believed they died as a result of 1916 service the Pension Board disagreed.


McNestry Patrick. Volunteer, “F” Company, 1st Battalion, Dublin brigade, Irish Volunteers. Fought in the Four Courts and Church Street areas. He was born in Dublin and employed as a silversmith. He was a well know Association Football player and was a total abstainer from alcohol and a member of the Sacred Heart Sodality in Phibsboro. Arrested after the Rising he was sentenced to Penal Servitude for life serving time in Portland Prison where he received punishment from breaking through cell walls. On Sunday the 17th of June 1917 along with all other male prisoners from the Rising still in custody he was taken from Pentonville Prison London, he was put on a special train to Euston Station and then to Holyhead where they were put on board the Mail Steamer Munster and then to Kingstown where a train took them to Westland Row Station Dublin, they arrived on the morning of Monday the 18th and were greeted by a large cheering crowd. He died from Typhoid Fever on the 16th of October 1920 while living in Cork where he was employed at Egan jewellers Patrick Street. At the time of his death he was Staff Officer with “C” Company, 1st battalion, Cork Brigade I.R.A.




                                              Leaders and Volunteers Executed



After the executions of those involved in the Rising the British authorities refused to release the bodies fearing that those executed would be made martyrs and their funerals used to gain support for the Rebels cause. Fourteen of those executed were buried at Arbour Hill Cemetery. Arbour Hill Cemetery was the burial ground for the British garrison and had been in use since the early 1700s. The Garrison Church in the cemetery grounds is now the church of the Irish Defence Forces.

The fourteen are buried in a mass grave which is the grass covered area in the images above. The names of those buried in the grave are at the head of the grave in Irish and at the foot of the grave in English. The large screen wall in the background has the Proclamation in both English and Irish engraved on it. The Rising leaders buried in Arbour Hill are:


Thomas Clarke

Thomas Clarke was the son of a British army sergeant and Mary Palmer from Cloghern, Co. Tipperary. During his time in America as a young man, he joined Clann na nGael, later enduring fifteen years of penal servitude for his role in a bombing campaign in London, 1883-1898. In 1907, having returned from a second spell in America, his links with Clan na nGael in America copper-fastened his importance to the revolutionary movement in Ireland. He held the post of Treasurer to the Irish Republican Brotherhood, and was a member of the Supreme Council from 1915. The first signatory of the Proclamation of Independence through deference to his seniority, Clarke was with the group that occupied the G. P. O.


General Sir John Maxwell described Thomas Clarke as:

This man was a signatory to the Declaration of Irish Independence. He was one of the most prominent leaders in the Sinn Fein movement in Dublin. He was present with the rebels in the GPO, Sackville Street, where some of the heaviest fighting took place and was proved to have been in a position of authority there. On 20 May 1885, under the name of Henry H. Wilson, he was sentenced in London to Penal Servitude for life for treason felony, and was released on licence on the 20 September 1898. He exercised a great influence over the younger members of the organisation with which he was connected.

Thomas Clarke was tried by Field General Courts Martial on 2 May 1916.

Court Martial ProceedingsThe members of the courts martial were Brigadier-General C.G. Blackader (President), Lieutenant-Colonels G. German and W.J. Kent.

Thomas Clarke was charged with "taking part in an armed rebellion and in the waging of war against His Majesty the King, such act being of such a nature as to be calculated to be prejudicial to the Defence of the Realm and being done with the intension and for the purpose of assisting the enemy." Thomas Clarke pleaded not guilty.

The 1st witness was 2nd Lieutenant S.L. King (12th Royal Enniskillen Fusiliers) who stated

Between 10 and 11am Tuesday 25 April 1916 I was in Sackville Street, 2 men rushed across from the direction of the Post Office, and took me prisoner taking me into the main entrance of the Post Office. While I was detained there I often saw the prisoner. He appeared to be a person in authority although he was not in uniform. Some of the men obtained a key from him at different times and some wore uniform. I have no doubt that he was one of the rebels.

When cross-examined by Thomas Clarke, 2nd Lieutenant King confirmed that he had been well treated during his term of imprisonment.

Thomas Clarke did not call any witnesses or make a statement in his defence.

Court Martial VerdictThomas Clarke was sentenced to death by shooting. This sentence was confirmed by General Maxwell. Between 3.30 and 4am on 3 May 1916, Thomas Clarke was shot in the former Stonebreakers yard at Kilmainham Prison. His remains were later buried in Arbour Hill Cemetery.


James Connolly



James Connolly Born in Edinburgh in 1868, Connolly was first introduced to Ireland as a member of the British Army. Despite returning to Scotland, the strong Irish presence in Edinburgh stimulated Connolly’s growing interest in Irish politics in the mid 1890s, leading to his emigration to Dublin in 1896 where he founded the Irish Socialist Republican Party. He spent much of the first decade of the twentieth century in America, he returned to Ireland to campaign for worker’s rights with James Larkin. A firm believer in the perils of sectarian division, Connolly campaigned tirelessly against religious bigotry. In 1913, Connolly was one of the founders of the Irish Citizen Army. During the Easter Rising he was appointed Commandant-General of the Dublin forces, leading the group that occupied the General Post Office. Unable to stand during his execution due to wounds received during the Rising, Connolly was executed while sitting down on 12 May 1916. He was the last of the leaders to be executed. The trial itself took place on 9 May 1916.


Described by General Sir John Maxwell as

This man has been a prominent leader in the Larkinite or Citizen Army for years. He was also a prominent supporter of the Sinn Fein movement. He held the rank of Commandant General of the Dublin Division in the rebel army, and had his headquarters at the GPO from which place he issued orders. On the 24 April he issued and signed a general order to "The Officers and soldiers in Dublin of the Irish Republic" stating that " ... the armed forces of the Irish Republic had everywhere met the enemy and defeated them." This man was also a signatory to the Proclamation of Irish Independence.

Court MembersThe court consisted of three members: Colonel D. Lapte (President), Lieutenant-Colonel A.M. Bent, 2nd Royal Munster Fusiliers, and Major F.W. Woodward, DSO, Loyal North Lancs. Regiment. The ChargesJames Connolly was charged with two offences:
  • Did an act to wit did take part in an armed rebellion and in the waging of war against His Majesty the King, such act being of such a nature as to be calculated to be prejudicial to the Defence of the Realm and being done with the intention and for the purpose of assisting then enemy.
  • Did attempt to cause disaffection among the civilian population of His Majesty.
1st Witness2nd Lieutenant S.L. King, 12 Res. Battalion, Royal Inniskilling Fusiliers states:

In Sackville Street Dublin about 11am on 25th April 1916 I was taken prisoner by the rebels and taken upstairs in the General Post Office. There were 2 other Officers confined in the same room. There were many armed rebels in the building. I saw firing from the Hotel Metropole.

I saw the accused, in uniform and equipped with a revolver etc., going across to the Hotel Metropole. I saw him pointing out as if to order a window to be broken in the Hotel which was done, and fire opened from the window. I saw the accused on 3 or 4 occasions near the General Post Office.

Connolly cross-examined the witness you also stated I was in the Post Office from 25th to 28th April when I was marched out of it by some of the rebels. We were very well treated generally by the rebels. The window broken gave a good field of fire across Sackville Street. The uniform the accused wore was the green Volunteers uniform with strips on his arm, and a wide hat. I can’t remember any feathers in it.

When re-examined by the prosecutor relating to conditions in which he was held prisoner and the circumstances of his release by the Rebels the witness stated When we were put out of the Post Office we were told to run for our lives and we were fired on by the rebels, and 2 of us hit. I can’t state whether the British troops were firing at the time.

2nd Witness

Captain H.E. de C. Wheeler, Res. of Officers states

I saw the accused, James Connolly, in bed at the Dublin Castle Hospital on the 29th April 1916 between 3 & 4pm. I had previously seen the rebel leader P.H. Pearse surrender at the top of Moore Street off Great Britain Street. I produce a document which I brought to the accused from Pearse, which he signed in my presence.

3rd Witness

2nd Lieutenant S.H. Jackson, 3rd Royal Irish Regiment states

On the 1st May 1916, I searched the rebel John McBride and found the document I produce to the court. It purports to be signed by James Connolly and I consider the signature the same as that shown to me by this court (signature on Exhibit X).

4th Witness

2nd Lieutenant A.D. Chailman, 14th Royal Fusiliers states:

About 12pm on 24 April 1916 I was in the General Post Office Dublin when about 300 armed rebels entered and seized the Post Office and made me prisoner. I saw the accused present among them. The accused ordered me to be tied up in the Telephone Box. This was done. I was kept there about 3 hours. One of the rebels came in and asked me how I was getting on. I replied that I was about suffocated. Apparently the man went to the accused. I then heard the accused say "I don’t care a damm what you do with him." The words were obviously concerned with me. I was kept in the General Post Office until 28th April 1916. On the 25th and 26th April from the window of the room I was in, I saw the accused giving orders about firing from the Hotel Metropole. I heard him give orders for firing on more than one occasion.

Cross-examined by the accused:

I think I last saw the accused on 26th April. Up to that I had frequently seem him. The rebels did their best for us whilst we were in the Post Office. The accused was in dark green uniform with a distinctive hat with cock’s feathers in it. The distinctive uniform was very noticeable from the other Volunteer uniforms. I saw the accused close while he was in the Post Office. I did not actually hear the accused order me to be tied up in the box. One of the rebels went up to the accused and on his instruction I was tied up.

The accused in his defence states: I read this written document.

James Connolly also stated that a copy of his courts-martial proceedings be given to his wife. The court directed him to apply to C-in-C Irish Command.

Medical ConditionJames Connolly was shot in the thigh during the fighting at the Post Office. He was kept in Dublin Castle Hospital up to his execution. This room is now known as the James Connolly Room.

The following statement was given by two doctors at the hospital

We certify that during the entire period of James Connolly’s detention as a patient in the Dublin Castle Hospital he has been perfectly rational and in complete possession of his faculties. His mental condition has been and still is perfectly normal and his mind, memory and understanding entirely unimpaired and that he is fit to undergo his trial.

The statement was signed by R.J. Tobin, FRCS, in medical charge of the patient, and P.J. O’Farrell, LRCP & S.

Verdict & Sentence

James Connolly was found guilty of the 1st charge, and sentenced to death with no recommendation for mercy. He was found not guilty of the 2nd charge. The decision of the court was relayed to James Connolly at Dublin Castle Hospital on 10th May 1916. Two days’ later, on 12th May 1916, James Connolly was executed by firing squad in the stonebreakers’ yard at Kilmainham Jail.

Exhibits X, Y and Z

Exhibit X: Document signed by P.H. Pearse, J. Connolly & T. MacDonagh.

In place of this exhibit in the proceedings document was found the following piece of paper

Received from the Judge Advocate-General a document signed by P.H. Pearse, James Connolly & Thomas MacDonagh, which was attached as Exhibit X to the proceedings of the F.G.C.M held at Dublin on James Connolly on 9 May 1916.

Lost 2 July 1918. Signed: J.G. Maxwell, Lieutenant-General.

Exhibit Y: Letter signed by James Connolly

Date: 24 April 1916.

The Officers & Soldiers in Dublin of the Irish Republic.

Comrades,

We Salute you. This day the flag of the Irish Republic has been hoisted in Dublin and the armed forces of the Irish Republic have everywhere set the enemy and defeated them - North, South, East and West. The Irish Army has been in action all day, and at no single point has it been driven in, nor lost a single position it has taken up. In the name of Ireland we salute you. This is the greatest day in Irish history and it is you who have made it so.

Signed: James Connolly
Commandant-General
Dublin Division.

Exhibit Z: Statement submitted by James Connolly in his defence.

I don’t wish to make any defence except against charges of wanton cruelty to prisoners. These trifling allegations that have been made in that direction if they record facts that really happened deal only with the almost inevitable incidents of a hurried uprising and overthrowing of long established authorities, and no where show evidence of a set purpose to wantonly injure unarmed prisoners.

We went out to break the connection between this country and the British Empire and to establish an Irish Republic. We believe that the call we thus issued to the people of Ireland was a holier calling and a holier cause than any call issued to them during this war having any connection with the war. We succeeded in proving that Irishmen are ready to die endeavouring to win for Ireland their national rights which the British Government has been asking then to die to win for Belgium. As long as that remains the case the cause of Irish Freedom is safe. Believing that the British Government has no right in Ireland, never had any right in Ireland, and never can have any right in Ireland. The presence in any one generation of even a respectable minority of Irishmen ready to die to affirm that truth makes that Government for ever an usurpation, and a crime against human progress. I personally thank God that I have lived to see the day when thousands of Irishmen and boys, and hundreds of Irish women & girls, were equally ready to affirm that truth and seal it with their lives if necessary.


Patrick Pearse



Pearse was born in on 10th of September in Dublin He became interested in Irish cultural in his teenage years. In 1898 Pearse became a member of the Executive Committee of the Gaelic League. He graduated from the Royal University in 1901 with a degree in Arts and Law. Pearse published extensively in both Irish and English, becoming the editor of An Claidheamh Soluis, the newspaper of the Gaelic League. He established two schools, Coláiste Éanna and Coláiste Íde, devoted to the education of Irish children through the Irish language. One of the founder members of the Irish Volunteers, and the author of the Proclamation of Independence, Pearse was present in the G. P. O. during the Rising, and was Commander in Chief of the Irish forces. He was the older brother of William Pearse.


General Sir John Maxwell description Patrick Pearse was:

This man was a member of the Irish Bar and was Principal of a college for boys at Rathfarnham, Co Dublin. He had taken an active part in the volunteer movement from its inception, and joined the Sinn Fein or Irish Volunteers when that body became a separate organisation. He was a member of the Central Council of the Irish Volunteers and a regular attendant at the meetings of that body. He was one of the signatories to the Declaration of Irish Independence which document contains the following passage "... She now seizes that moment and fully supported by her exiled children in America and by gallant allies in Europe ... she strikes in the full confidence of victory ... “He was "Commandant General of the Army of the Irish Republic" and "President of the Provisional Government", and as such, issued a Proclamation to the people of Ireland which was printed and distributed in Dublin and elsewhere.

Patrick Pearse was tried by Field General Courts Martial on 2 May 1916.

Court Martial ProceedingsThe members of the courts martial were Brigadier-General C.G. Blackader (President), Lieutenant-Colonels G. German and W.J. Kent.

To the charge of " ... did take part in an armed rebellion and in the waging of war against His Majesty the King, such act being of such a nature as to be calculated to be prejudicial to the Defence of the Realm and being done with the intension and for the purpose of assisting the enemy."

Patrick Pearse pleaded not guilty.

The 1st witness was 2nd Lieutenant S.O. King (12th Royal Inniskilling Fusiliers) who stated.

I was on duty at the Rotunda Dublin on Saturday 29 April. The Sinn Fein was firing at the soldiers. The accused came from the neighbourhood from which the shots were being fired. The accused was in the same uniform in which he is now with belt, sword and revolver on and 3 with ammunition. The accused surrendered to General Lowe. Patrick Pearse then cross-examined the witness and asked if he was a prisoner in our hands and how were you treated? 2nd Lieutenant King confirmed that he was a prisoner and that he had been well treated.

The 2nd witness was Constable Daniel Coffey (Dublin Metropolitan Police) who stated

I was present when the accused Pearse was in custody at Irish Command HQ at about 5pm on Saturday 29 April. I identify him as a member of the Irish Volunteers. I have seen him several times going through the city with bodies of men and acting as an officer.

Patrick Pearse declined to examine this witness.

Patrick Pearse did not call any witnesses in his defence but made the following statement:

My sole object in surrendering unconditionally was to save the slaughter of the civil population and to save the lives of our followers who had been led into this thing by us. It is my hope that the British Government who has shown its strength will also be magnanimous and spare the lives and give an amnesty to my followers, as I am one of the persons chiefly responsible, have acted as C-in-C and President of the Provisional Government. I am prepared to take the consequences of my act, but I should like my followers to receive an amnesty. I went down on my knees as a child and told God that I would work all my life to gain the freedom of Ireland. I have deemed it my duty as an Irishman to fight for the freedom of my country. I admit I have organised men to fight against Britain. I admit having opened negotiations with Germany. We have kept our word with her and as far as I can see she did her best to help us. She sent a ship with men. Germany has not sent us gold.

Court Martial Verdict

Patrick Pearse was sentenced to death by shooting. This sentence was confirmed by General Maxwell. Between 3.30 and 4am on 3 May 1916, Patrick Pearse was shot in the former stonebreaker’s yard at Kilmainham Prison. His remains were later buried in Arbour Hill Cemetery.


Joseph Mary Plunkett



Born 1887 in Dublin, son of a papal count, Plunkett was initially educated in England, though he returned to Ireland and graduated from U. C. D. in 1909. After his graduation Plunkett spent two years travelling due to ill health, returning to Dublin in 1911. Plunkett shared MacDonagh’s enthusiasm for literature and was an editor of the Irish Review. Along with MacDonagh and Edward Martyn, he helped to establish an Irish national theatre. He joined the Irish Volunteers in 1913, subsequently gaining membership of the I. R. B. in 1914. Plunkett travelled to Germany to meet Roger Casement in 1915. During the planning of the Rising, Plunkett was appointed Director of Military Operations, with overall responsibility for military strategy. Plunkett was one of those who were stationed in the G. P. O. during the Rising. He married Grace Gifford while in Kilmainham Gaol following the surrender and was executed on 4 May 1916.

The trial of Joseph Plunkett took place on 3 May 1916. The Field General Court Martial was convened by General Sir John Maxwell, commander-in-chief of the British forces in Ireland, on 2 May 1916.


General Sir John Maxwell described Joseph Plunkett as:

This man was also a signatory to the Declaration of Irish Independence. He was a member of the Central Council of the Sinn Fein Volunteers and took part in their meetings and parades. His residence was a training ground and arsenal for the rebels. This man, being of good education, exercised great influence for evil over the other members. He took an active part in the fighting in and around the GPO where the British troops suffered severely. He held the rank of Captain. Court Members

The court consisted of three members: Colonel E.W.S.K. Maconchy, CB, CIE, DSO (President), Lieutenant-Colonel A.M. Bent, CMG, 2/Royal Munster Fusiliers and Major F.W. Woodward, DSO, Loyal North Lancs. Regiment.

The Charge

Joseph Plunkett was charged with the following offence:

Did an act to wit did take part in an armed rebellion and in the waging of war against His Majesty the King such act being of such a nature as to be calculated to be prejudicial to the Defence of the Realm and being done with the intention and for the purpose of assisting the enemy.

Joseph Plunkett pleaded not guilty to this charge.

1st Witness

Major Philip Holmes, 5th (attached 3rd) Battalion, Royal Irish Regiment, states after being sworn:

I identify the prisoner as a man who was one of the leaders of a large company of Sinn Feiners who surrendered on the evening of 29 April 1916. They surrendered at the northern end of Sackville Street in the area to which the Sinn Feiners who had been in the Post Office for several day had retired when the Post Office was burnt. The Sinn Feiners in the Post Office had been firing on the troops for several days & killed & wounded a number of soldiers. He was dressed in the green uniform he is now wearing with a Captain’s badge of rank on his sleeves when he surrendered. The party at the head of which he surrendered was armed.

2nd Witness

Sergeant John Bruton, Dublin Metropolitan Police states:

I know the prisoner Joseph Plunkett. The headquarters of the Irish Volunteer movement was at No. 2 Dawson Street. I have seen him on two occasions entering & leaving No. 2 Dawson Street dressed, as well as I could see, in the uniform of the Irish Volunteers on at least one occasion. His name appears on the Proclamation issued by the Irish Volunteers & I believe him to be a member of the Executive Council.

Cross-examined by the prisoner

How do you know the Proclamation was issued by the Irish Volunteers?

Answer

I know that the names of the men which appear at the foot of the Proclamation are connected with the Irish Volunteers. They include P.H. Pearse, Edward Kent, Thomas MacDonagh and John MacDermott who are members of the council of the Irish Volunteers & who constantly attended meetings at No. 2 Dawson Street.

3rd Witness

Lieutenant-Colonel H.S. Hodgkin, DSO, 6th Sherwood Foresters states:

I saw the prisoner when he surrendered on the 29 April. He was wearing a sword & pistol.

Defence

In his defence the prisoner states:

I have nothing to say in my defence but desire to state that the proclamation referred to in Sergeant Bruton’s evidence is signed by persons who are not connected with the Irish Volunteers and the Proclamation was not issued by the Irish Volunteers.

Verdict

Joseph Plunkett was found guilty and sentenced to death with no recommendation for mercy.

The Marriage

At about 5pm on Wednesday 3 May 1916, a young lady drove up to a jeweller's shop in Grafton Street. The jeweller had put his stock away for the night, and was about to shut the shop. The lady asked for any kind of wedding ring. The jeweller went over his stock, and gave the lady a ring.

At 1.30am on 4 May 1916, Grace Gifford was led into the small chapel of Kilmainham Jail and stood waiting until the handcuffed Josef Plunkett was brought in, and led up the aisle to stand beside her at the chapel's altar. As there was no electricity available, the marriage ceremony was conducted by Reverend Eugene MacCarthy, using candles for light. Twenty British soldiers, with fixed bayonets, lined the walls of the chapel. Immediately after the conclusion of the ceremony Joseph Plunkett was taken away.

Before Plunkett's execution by firing squad, Grace was allowed to see him for a further ten minutes. During this time, 15 soldiers stood guard in the cell, and the duration of the meeting was timed by a soldier with a watch.

In the Irish Times of Friday 5 May 1916, there appeared the following marriage notice:

PLUNKETT and GIFFORD - May 3, 1916, at Dublin, Joseph Plunkett to Grace Gifford. One hour after this last meeting , Joseph Plunkett, together with Edward Daly, Michael O'Hanrahan and Willie Pearse (Patrick Pearse's bother) were executed by firing squad in the high-walled, former stonebreakers’ yard at Kilmainham Jail.

Grace Gifford was the sister of Thomas Macdonagh's wife. He was also executed by firing squad at Kilmainham, for his part in the rebellion.


Seán Macdermott


Born on 28th February 1884 in Leitrim, MacDermott (usually used the Irish version MacDiarmada) immigrated to Glasgow in 1900 and from there to Belfast in 1902. A member of the Gaelic League, he was acquainted with Bulmer Hobson. He joined the Irish Republican Brotherhood in 1906 while still in Belfast, later transferring to Dublin in 1908 where he assumed managerial responsibility for the I. R. B. newspaper Irish Freedom in 1910. Although MacDiarmada was afflicted with polio in 1912, he was appointed as a member of the provisional committee of Irish Volunteers from 1913, and was subsequently drafted onto the military committee of the I. R. B. in 1915. During the Rising MacDiarmada served in the G. P. O.

Described by General Sir John Maxwell as


This man signed the Declaration of Irish Independence. He was one of the most prominent of the leaders of the Irish Volunteers and attended at the meetings of the Executive and Control Councils. He wrote and sent despatches and mobilisation orders for and to the rebels during the rebellion and he surrendered with a body of rebels in Sackville Street with whom he had been operating for the previous week.

Sean MacDermott was tried by Field General Courts Martial on 3 May 1916.

Court Martial Proceedings

The members of the courts martial were Colonel D. Sapte (President), Lieutenant-Colonel Bent and Major F.W. Woodward. At his trial, Sean MacDermott faced two charges to which he pleaded not guilty:

  • " Took part in an armed rebellion and in the waging of war against His Majesty the King, such act being of such a nature as to be calculated to be prejudicial to the Defence of the Realm and being done with the intension and for the purpose of assisting the enemy."
  • "Did attempt to cause disaffection among the civilian population of His Majesty."
The 1st Witness was Constable Daniel Hoey (Dublin Metropolitan Police) who stated

I have known the accused by the name of John McDermott, or in the Irish form Sean MacDiarmada, for 3.5 years. The accused associated with leaders of the Irish Volunteers, Thomas Clarke, P.H. Pearse, Joseph Plunkett, Frank Fahy, Joe McGuinness, E.J. Duggan and others. They held executive meetings once a week and General Council meetings once a month at HQ Irish Volunteers, 2 Dawson Street. The accused and those mentioned attended these meetings. The accused visits an office in 12 D'Olier Street Dublin frequently. It has the name Sean MacDiarmada on a plate. I have seen some of the others mentioned visiting there; Thomas J. Clarke had a tobacconist's shop at 75a Parnell Street. This shop was frequented by leading members. I have seen the accused there frequently. I did not see the accused at Liberty Hall, the headquarters of the General Transport and Workers Union.

After being questioned by the accused the witness made the following statement

I have only known the accused to associate with Irish Volunteer leaders during the last 12 months. I have known him for 3.5 years but at first he did not so associate as far as I know. I do not know all the objects of the Gaelic league but I understand the Irish Language is one of them. I do not know his connection with the Gaelic League, I have not enquired into it. I have not seen the accused at the Headquarters. Gaelic league.

The report of the Central Executive meeting of the Irish Volunteers is published in the "Irish Volunteer". A paper known as Nationality is published at 12 D'Olier Street. This is the principal livelihood of the accused. There are several offices in 12 D'Olier Street. Clarke's shop sells papers etc as well as tobacco. He did a good business there. I have seen the accused visit many public houses and remain a considerable time.

The 2nd witness was Lieutenant W.H. Ruxton (3rd Royal Irish Regiment) who stated

I was on duty in Parnell Street on the 29th April 1916 when 3 parties of rebels: two armed and one partially armed with knives and some ammunition, surrendered. The accused was one of the two armed parties who surrendered between 6 and 7 pm. The accused spoke to me and said he would not be able to march far on account of his leg. I asked him why he could not march. One of the others told me his leg was paralysed. I asked the accused "How did you get into this affair". The accused replied to the effect that he had his place in the organisation. The parties came from the direction of the General Post Office. They were sent on to the Rotunda. I am positive the accused is the man I spoke to.

When Lieutenant Ruxton was cross-examined by the accused he stated that there were about 200 men in the party of the accused. They were not all armed. I did not see any arms in the possession of the accused.

The 3rd witness 2nd Lieutenant S.A.L. Downing (3rd Royal Irish Regiment) who stated

I was on duty on 29th April 1916 in Sackville Street. I took the names of about 23 of the rebels after they had laid down their arms. The accused was in that party and is shown on the list, but I do not know if he actually gave the name.

When cross-examined by the accused, 2nd Lieutenant Downing admitted that he did not pay particular attention to the surrender of arms and did not see the accused with any arms.

The 4th witness was Lieutenant-Colonel H.F. Eraser (21st Lancers) who stated

I was present in the Richmond Barracks Dublin on the 30th April 1916, and identify the accused as one of those confined there, but not necessarily on that date. All papers taken from the prisoners on this occasion were handed to me. I identify the paper produced as one of those handed in to me in the gymnasium on that day.

The 5th witness was Edward Gaunon (Warden Mountjoy Prison Dublin) who stated

I identify the accused as John McDermott who was confined in Mountjoy Prison Dublin in May/June 1915. I produce the cash and property book, in which the accused signed his name Sean MacDiarmada on the 26th May 1915. The spelling is the same as on the document now shown to me. Except for the S, there is a strong resemblance between the signatures.

When cross-examined by the accused Gaunon admitted that he was not a fluent Irish scholar.

The 6th witness was Captain Henry de Courcey Wheeler who stated

On 7 May 1916 at about 6.30pm I searched ... [part of record is missing] ... the voice of a man named McDermott, not the accused, but a man I had not known before, I did not attend the weekly meetings of the Irish Volunteers, nor any of their meetings. I sent them their accounts by post.

Court Martial VerdictSean MacDermott was found guilty of the 1st charge and not guilty of the 2nd. He was sentenced to death by shooting. The sentence was confirmed by General Maxwell.

At 3.45am on 12 May 1916, Sean MacDermott was shot in the former stonebreaker’s yard at Kilmainham Prison. His remains were later buried in Arbour Hill Cemetery.



Thomas MacDonagh




A native of Tipperary, born in 1878, MacDonagh spent the early part of his career as a teacher. He moved to Dublin to study, and was the first teacher on the staff at St. Enda’s, the school he helped to found with Patrick Pearse. MacDonagh was well versed in literature, his enthusiasm and erudition earning him a position in the English department at University College Dublin. His play When the Dawn is Come was produced at the Abbey theatre. He was appointed director of training for the Irish Volunteers in 1914, later joining the I. R. B. MacDonagh was appointed to the I. R. B. military committee in 1916. He was commander of the Second Battalion that occupied Jacob’s biscuit factory and surrounding houses during the Rising.

General Sir John Maxwell described Thomas MacDonagh:

This man was a M.A of the National University in Ireland and a tutor in English Literature in the University College Dublin. He took an active part in the Sinn Fein movement since its inauguration and was a prominent officer and Director of Training. He was also a signatory to the Declaration of Irish Independence. He signed a document headed "Army of the Irish Republic" which set out the various "Commands" and described himself there as "Commandant General and member of the Provisional Government of the Irish Republic". He was in command of the party of the rebels who occupied and held Jacob's Biscuit Factory from the neighbourhood of which the British troops were fired on and numerous casualties occurred.

Thomas MacDonagh was tried by Field General Courts Martial on 2 May 1916.

Court Martial ProceedingsThe members of the courts martial were Brigadier-General C.G. Blackader (President), Lieutenant-Colonels G. German and W.J. Kent.

Charged with "did take part in an armed rebellion and in the waging of war against His Majesty the King, such act being of such a nature as to be calculated to be prejudicial to the Defence of the Realm and being done with the intension and for the purpose of assisting the enemy."

Thomas MacDonagh pleaded not guilty.

The 1st witness was Major J.A. Armstrong (1st Royal Inniskilling Fusiliers) who stated.

I was present at St. Patrick’s Park Dublin on 30 April 1916. There were British troops there and I saw them fired on. I was under fire myself. The shots came from the direction of Jacob's Factory. There were several casualties among the British troops. At a later hour I saw the accused coming from the direction of Jacob's Factory under a white flag. He made several journeys through our lines - about 5pm he surrendered with over 100 others to General Carleton. He was acting as an officer when he surrendered. I made a list of the unarmed men and the accused was not on that list. He made a statement to me that he was a Commandant. He was subsequently sent under escort to Richmond Barracks.

Thomas MacDonagh then cross-examined the witness and asked if he knew why MacDonagh had come out of the building? Major Armstrong stated that he did not know that the accused had come out at the invitation of General Lowe. Also MacDonagh had told him that there was no point searching him as he had already destroyed any documents in his possession.

Thomas MacDonagh did not call any witnesses in his defence but made the following statement:

I did everything I could to assist the officers in the matter of the surrender telling them where the arms and ammunition were after the surrender was decided upon.

Court Martial VerdictThomas MacDonagh was sentenced to death by shooting. This sentence was confirmed by General Maxwell. Between 3.30 and 4am on 3 May 1916, Thomas MacDonagh was shot in the former Stonebreaker’s yard at Kilmainham Prison. His remains were later buried in Arbour Hill Cemetery.



Éamonn Ceannt



Born in Galway in 1881, prior to the Rising Ceannt was an employee of the Dublin Corporation. He was a co-founder of the Irish Volunteers, partaking in the successful Howth gun-running operation of 1914. His involvement in republican activities was complemented by his interest in Irish culture, specifically Irish language and history, although he was also an accomplished uileann piper. As the commander of the Fourth Battalion of Irish Volunteers during the Rising, he took possession of the South Dublin Union, precursor to the modern-day St. James’s Hospital. He was executed on 8 May 1916.


Éamonn Ceannt was described by General Sir John Maxwell as

This man was one of the signatories to the Declaration of Irish Independence. He was on the Executive Committee and Central Council of the Irish Volunteers and attended all their meetings. He was an extremist in his views and identified himself with all pro-German movements. He held the rank of Commandant in the rebel army and was in command at the South Dublin Union in the capture of which the British troops suffered heavily, losing both officers and men. He was armed at the time of his surrender.


Eamonn Ceannt was tried by Field General Courts Martial on 3-4 May 1916.

Court Martial ProceedingsThe members of the courts martial were Brigadier-General C.G. Blackader (President), Lieutenant-Colonel G. German and Lieutenant-Colonel W.J. Kent. Éamonn Ceannt was charged with "taking part in an armed rebellion and in the waging of war against His Majesty the King, such act being of such a nature as to be calculated to be prejudicial to the Defence of the Realm and being done with the intension and for the purpose of assisting the enemy."

The 1st witness was Major J.A. Armstrong who stated

I was at Patrick’s Park on 30 April 1916. The British troops were fired on, the fire came from the neighbourhood of Jacob's Factory. Several casualties occurred. I was under fire. I was present about 5pm when the party from Jacob's Factory surrendered. I directed an officer to make a list of the unarmed men. The accused surrendered as one of the party and was at the head of it, his name was not on the unarmed list. There was an armed list made and his name appears at the head and from information he gave he his described as Commandant. I asked him to give orders and he did so, they were obeyed.

When cross-examined by the accused, Major Armstrong confirmed that the two lists of men: armed and unarmed, were made after the groups of men were disarmed. Armstrong stated that the accused did not have a rifle but a revolver or automatic pistol which he removed from a pocket and placed on the ground.

Eamonn Ceannt called three witnesses in his defence: John McBride, Richard Davys and Patrick Sweeney. One of the other witnesses due to be called was Thomas MacDonagh, but he was executed by firing squad during the early morning of 3 May 1916.

The 1st witness called by Eamonn Ceannt in his defence was John McBride who stated

I know the accused intimately. I should be in no doubt as to his identity. I remember Sunday 30 April 1916 and preceding days, I was in Jacob's factory, I left it on Sunday afternoon between 4 and 5pm. The accused was not in my company before I left. It was impossible for the accused to be in Jacob's factory without my knowledge, he had no connection with the party that occupied Jacob's factory.

When John McBride was cross-examined he stated that he saw the accused in the area of St Patrick's Park when the group under his command surrendered, and that he did not see the accused at any time between Easter Monday and Sunday 30 April 1916. He also confirmed that he did not have any knowledge that the accused was the Commandant of the 4th Battalion.

Both Richard Davys and Patrick Sweeney confirmed that they had not seen the accused in Jacob's Factory, however Richard Davys stated that he saw the accused in the area of St Patrick's Park.

Following his last witness Eamonn Ceannt made the following statement

Three witnesses who were in Jacob's Factory from Monday 24 April 1916 to about 5pm on Sunday 30 April have sworn that I was not in Jacob's Factory during any of that period and was not one of a party which surrendered from Jacob's Factory on Sunday 30 April. Another witness who was not available (Thomas MacDonagh) would have been able to corroborate these three. The evidence makes it quite clear that I can't have had anything to do with the firing from the neighbourhood of Jacobs which resulted in casualties to British troops at St Patrick's Park as referred to. I don't accuse Major Armstrong of endeavouring to mislead the Court but it's clear that he was deceived in thinking that I was attached in any way to the Jacobs party which as deposed fired on British troops in the neighbourhood of Patrick's Park. He had admitted that his plan of making a list of armed men was by a process of elimination of the unarmed men from the whole list on parade and from recollection. He had admitted that the list of armed men was compiled after all men had been disarmed. I submit that this evidence is not conclusive except insofar as it concerned the unarmed men and is not evidence as to the men who were armed. I claim at least that there is reasonable doubt and the benefit of the doubt should be given to the accused. In regard to my carrying arms there is no positive or direct evidence except that Major Armstrong believes I carried a revolver or automatic pistol which he says I took from my pocket and laid upon the ground. As to my having surrendered to the military authorities this is sufficiently proved by my presence at Richmond Barracks and is hereby freely admitted. As to the accusation that I did an act " ... with the intention and for the purpose of assisting the enemy ..." I content myself with a simple denial. The Crown did not even tender evidence in this regard. I gave away my automatic pistol. The Volunteer uniform more often than not does not indicate the rank of the wearer. The witness I intended to call and could not be found from the description I gave to the Police would have proven that I did not come from the neighbourhood of Jacob's Factory. I came at the head of two bodies of men but was only connected with one body.

Court Martial VerdictEamonn Ceannt was found guilty and sentenced to death by shooting. The sentenced was confirmed by General Maxwell.

Between 3.45 and 4.05am on 8 May 1916, Eamonn Ceannt was shot in the former stonebreaker’s yard at Kilmainham Prison. His remains were later buried in Arbour Hill Cemetery.


Edward (Ned) Daly



Born in Limerick in 1891 the only son in a family with nine daughters, Daly’s family had a history of republican activity; his uncle John Daly had taken part in the rebellion of 1867. Edward Daly led the First Battalion during the Rising, which raided the Bridewell and Linenhall Barracks, eventually seizing control of the Four Courts. A close friend of Tom Clarke, their ties were made even stronger by the marriage of Clarke to Daly’s sister.


Sir John Maxwell described Edward Daly as:

This man was one of the most prominent extremists in the Sinn Fein organisation. He held the rank of Commandant and was in command of the body of rebels who held the Four Courts where heavy fighting took place and casualties occurred. He admitted being at the meeting of officers which decided to carry out the orders of the executive council and commence the armed rebellion.


Edward Daly was tried by Field General Courts Martial on 3 May 1916.

Court Martial ProceedingsThe members of the courts martial were Brigadier-General C.G. Blackader (President), Lieutenant-Colonels G. German and W.J. Kent.

Edward Daly was charged with "Took part in an armed rebellion and in the waging of war against His Majesty the King, such act being of such a nature as to be calculated to be prejudicial to the Defence of the Realm and being done with the intension and for the purpose of assisting the enemy." Edward Daly pleaded not guilty.

The 1st witness was Lieutenant Halpin (3rd Sherwood Foresters) who stated

I was arrested opposite the Four Courts on Monday 24 April and I was taken into the Four Courts and detained in Custody until the following Saturday. I first saw the accused on Thursday 27 April, he was armed and in uniform. I don't know if he was in authority. There was firing from the Four Courts while I was there.

When cross-examined by Edward Daly, Lieutenant Halpin confirmed that he had been well treated during his term of imprisonment.

The 2nd witness was Lieutenant A.P. Lindsay (5th Inniskilling Fusiliers) who stated

I was arrested on Tuesday 25 April by the rebels at the Four Courts and was fired on prior to arrest. Another officer with me was wounded. We were both taken into the Four Courts and confined there. I saw the accused during my confinement. I did not see the accused giving any orders. I saw him on Thursday, Friday and Saturday and had conversation with him. On Saturday I was informed that Commandant Daly wanted to see me. Commandant Daly is the accused. He said that he intended to make a counter attack as the position was hopeless. I told him it was useless and that he had better surrender. He said that he could not surrender without orders from his superior.

When cross-examined by Daly, Lieutenant Lindsay went on to say

He told me he had had a conference with the officers and that a counter attack had been decided upon. He also said that he did not expect anyone who took part in this counter attack would come back alive. He said that the object of making this counter attack was to save the lives of as many people as possible in the building.

Edward Daly did not call any witnesses but made the following statement in his defence

The reason I pleaded "Not Guilty" was because I had no dealings with any outside forces. I had no knowledge of the insurrection until Monday morning 24 April. The officers including myself when we heard the news held a meeting and decided that the whole thing was foolish but that being under orders we had no option but to obey.

Court Martial VerdictEdward Daly was sentenced to death by shooting. This sentence was confirmed by General Maxwell. Between 4 and 4.30am on 4 May 1916, Edward Daly was shot in the former stonebreaker’s yard at Kilmainham Prison. His remains were later buried in Arbour Hill Cemetery.


Michael O’Hanrahan



Born in New Rose, Wexford in 1877. As a young man, O’Hanrahan showed great promise as a writer, becoming heavily involved in the promotion of the Irish language. He founded the first Carlow branch of the Gaelic League, and published two novels, A Swordsman of the Brigade and When the Norman Came. Like many of the other executed leaders, he joined the Irish Volunteers from their inception, and was second in command to Thomas MacDonagh at Jacob’s biscuit factory during the Rising, although this position was largely usurped by the arrival of John MacBride. His execution took place on 4 May 1916.

His brother Henry (Harry) also fought in the Rising. Their father Richard O’Hanrahan was a prominent member of the Fenian Movement and played a major role in the Rising of 1867 in Wexford.



Michael O’Hanrahan

Described by General Sir John Maxwell as:

This man was employed at the office of the Headquarters of the Irish Volunteers. He was one of the most active members of that body, took part in all their parades and was a constant associate with the leaders of the rebellion. He was arrested in uniform and armed, and there had been heavy fighting and casualties amongst the British troops in the neighbourhood of the place where this man with others surrendered. He was an officer in the rebel army.

Michael O'Hanrahan was tried by Field General Courts Martial on 3 May 1916.

Court Martial ProceedingsThe members of the courts martial were Brigadier-General C.G. Blackader (President), Lieutenant-Colonel G. German and Lieutenant-Colonel W.J. Kent.

Michael O'Hanrahan was charged with Took part in an armed rebellion and in the waging of war against His Majesty the King, such act being of such a nature as to be calculated to be prejudicial to the Defence of the Realm and being done with the intension and for the purpose of assisting the enemy."

The 1st witness was Major J.A. Armstrong who stated

I was present at St. Patrick's Park on 30 April. The British troops were fired upon and there were several casualties. The fire came from the neighbourhood of Jacob's Factory. The same day a surrender was arranged. I saw the surrender being arranged by Mr. MacDonagh. Over 100 men arrived from Jacob's Factory as a result of the surrender and another large body arrived from the same direction as a result of the surrender. The accused belonged to one of the parties. He was in uniform and armed. After his removal to Richmond Barracks, he said that he was an officer.

When cross-examined by the accused Major Armstrong stated that all the officers appeared to be armed with pistols or revolvers. Armstrong was also unable to say if O'Hanrahan was armed but stated that his name did not appear on a list of those people found to have been unarmed.

Michael O'Hanrahan did not call any witnesses in his defence but made the following statement:

As a soldier of the Republican army acting under the orders of the Provisional Government of that Republic duly constituted I acted under the orders of my superiors.

Court Martial VerdictMichael O'Hanrahan was found guilty and sentenced to death by shooting. This sentence was confirmed by General Maxwell. Between 4 and 4.30am on 4 May 1916, Michael O'Hanrahan was shot in the former stonebreaker’s yard at Kilmainham Prison. His remains were later buried in Arbour Hill Cemetery.

William Pearse



Born on the 15 November 1881 in Dublin. The younger brother of Patrick, William shared his brother’s passion for an independent Ireland. He assisted Patrick in running St. Enda’s. The two brothers were extremely close, and fought alongside each other in the G. P. O. William was executed on 4 May 1916. Pearse railway station on Westland Row in Dublin was re-named in honour of the two brothers in 1966.

Described by General Sir John Maxwell as:

This man was a brother of P.H. Pearse, the President of the Irish Republic. He was associated with the Sinn Fein movement from its inception. He held the rank of Commandant in the rebel army. He was present in the GPO during the fighting and was acting as an officer and surrendered with the rebels in Sackville Street. William Pearse was tried by Field General Courts Martial on 3 May 1916.

Court Martial ProceedingsThe members of the courts martial were Colonel E.W.S.K. Maconchy (President), Lieutenant-Colonel A.M. Bent and Major F.W. Woodward.

William Pearse was charged with:Taking part in an armed rebellion and in the waging of war against His Majesty the King, such act being of such a nature as to be calculated to be prejudicial to the Defence of the Realm and being done with the intension and for the purpose of assisting the enemy." William Pearse was the only person tried for his part in the Easter Uprising who pleaded guilty. He also tried with three other men: John Dougherty, John McGarry and J.J. Walsh who all pleaded not guilty.

The 1st witness was 2nd Lieutenant S.L. King (12th Royal Inniskilling Fusiliers) who stated

On Tuesday 25 April at 11am I was seized by two armed men outside Clery's shop opposite the General Post Office. John Dougherty was one of the two. He held a revolver at me and told me if I did not put my hands up he would blow my brains out. He took me to the General Post Office where I was held as a prisoner till Friday night. I was in uniform. I saw each of the other prisoners in the GPO while I was there and during that time the Post Office was held against His Majesty's troops by men firing against the troops. There was another officer there Lieutenant Chalmers who was wounded, also in uniform. I know that William Pearse was an officer but do not know his rank. I do not know what McGarry's position was. He was not in uniform. J. Walsh did not appear to be in any position of authority but was dressed in uniform. I saw Pearse, McGarry and Walsh wearing equipment, belts and pouches. Dougherty had a revolver but no equipment. It was Dougherty who threatened to blow my brains out, not the man with him. I am quite certain that I saw McGarry with equipment on. John Dougherty did not call any witnesses in his defence but made the following statement:

I did not say that I would blow Lieutenant King's brains out. William Pearse did not call any witnesses in his defence but made the following statement

I had no authority or say in the arrangements for the starting of the rebellion. I was throughout - only a personal attaché to my brother P.H. Pearse. I had no direct command. John McGarry did not call any witnesses in his defence but made the following statement

I had no intension of assisting the enemy. I had no position or rank of any sort. I was employed as a messenger I did not know of the rebellion until the Post Office was taken. I had no rifle. J.J Walsh did not call any witnesses in his defence but made the following statement

During the past eighteen months I have held no official position either big or little in the Irish Volunteers or any other national movement and my whole attention was confined to business. I gave it up at the time of the split between the Redmondites and the Irish Volunteers. I mean my official position. I remained in the Volunteers as a private and on being mobilised on Monday I knew nothing whatever of the intension of the mobilisation. I fired on nobody during the time in the Post Office. I had no arms whatever. I was told off to attend to the water and sand arrangements in case of fire.

Court Martial VerdictAll four men were sentenced to death by shooting. The sentences on Dougherty and Walsh were commuted to terms of ten years penal servitude and the sentence on McGarry was commuted to eight years penal servitude. However the sentence on William Pearse was confirmed by General Maxwell. Between 4 and 4.30am on 4 May 1916, William Pearse was shot in the former stonebreaker’s yard at Kilmainham Prison. His remains were later buried in Arbour Hill Cemetery.

John MacBride (McBride)


Born in Mayo in 1865. Although he initially trained as a doctor, MacBride abandoned that profession in favour of work with a chemist. He travelled to America in 1896 to further the aims of the I. R. B., thereafter travelling to South Africa where he raised the Irish Transvaal Brigade during the Second Boer War. MacBride married the Irish nationalist Maude Gonne in 1903. He was not a member of the Irish Volunteers, but upon the beginning of the Rising he offered his services to Thomas MacDonagh, and was at Jacob’s biscuit factory when that post was surrendered on Sunday, 30 April 1916.

General Sir John Maxwell described John MacBride as:

This man fought on the side of the Boers in the South African was of 1899 and held the rank of Major in that Army, being in command of a body known as the Irish Brigade. He was always one of the most active advocates of the anti-enlistment propaganda and the Irish Volunteer movement. He was appointed to the rank of Commandant in the rebel army, and papers were found in his possession showing that he was in close touch with the other rebel leaders and was issuing and receiving despatches from rebels in various parts of the city. He voluntarily stated at his trial that he had been appointed second-in-command of portion of the rebel forces and considered it his duty to accept that position. He was accompanied by over 100 men at the time of his surrender. He had great influence over the younger men in the associations with which he was connected.

John MacBride was tried by Field General Courts Martial on 4 May 1916.

Court Martial ProceedingsThe members of the courts martial were Brigadier-General C.G. Blackader (President), Lieutenant-Colonel G. German and Lieutenant-Colonel W.J. Kent.

John MacBride was charge with"taking part in an armed rebellion and in the waging of war against His Majesty the King, such act being of such a nature as to be calculated to be prejudicial to the Defence of the Realm and being done with the intension and for the purpose of assisting the enemy."

The 1st witness was Major J.A. Armstrong who stated

I was present at St. Patrick's Park on 30 April. The British troops were fired upon and there were several casualties. The fire came from the neighbourhood of Jacob's Factory. I was present when the prisoners from Jacob's Factory surrendered at 5pm. I recognise the accused as one of them. He gave his rank as an officer. I had a list of the unarmed men made before the party was disarmed and the accused does not appear on that list. I was present when a Summary of Evidence was taken and I gave the same evidence as I have given now to the best of my belief. The accused didn't cross-examine me but he was in uniform.

When cross-examined by MacBride, Armstrong confirmed that the accused was a member of the party that surrendered but that Armstrong did not produce a list with MacBride's name on it.

The 2nd witness was 2nd Lieutenant S.H. Jackson (3rd Royal Irish Regiment) who stated

I recognise the accused as John MacBride. He gave his name as Major John MacBride. I was in charge of the searching party in the gymnasium. The accused handed his note book to me there, the date being 1 May 1916.

John MacBride declined to cross-examine this witness.

The only witness called by MacBride in his defence was Mrs. Allan (8 Spencer Villas, Glenagery) who stated

I have known the accused for 25 years. I remember you leaving my house last Easter Monday morning dressed in civilian clothes. I remember receiving a letter from the brother of the accused Dr. MacBride saying that he was coming up from Castlebar and asking the accused to meet him at the Wicklow Hotel Dublin. I remember the accused saying that he was going to lunch with his brother and would be back about 5pm. I remember that Dr. MacBride was to be married the following Wednesday and that the accused was to be best man. I have never seen him in uniform nor has he got such a thing so far as I know.

John MacBride then made the following statement

On the morning of Easter Monday I left my home at Glenageary with the intention of going to meet my brother who was coming to Dublin to get married. In waiting round town I went up as far as St Stephen's Green and there I saw a band of Irish Volunteers. I knew some of the members personally and the Commandant told me that an Irish Republic was virtually proclaimed. As he knew my rather advanced opinions and although I had no previous connection with the Irish Volunteers I considered it my duty to join them. I knew there was no chance of success, and I never advised or influenced any other person to join. I did not even know the positions they were about to take up. I marched with them to Jacob's Factory. After being a few hours there I was appointed second-in-command and I felt it my duty to occupy that position. I could have escaped from Jacob's Factory before the surrender had I so desired but I considered it a dishonourable thing to do. I do not say this with the idea of mitigating any penalty they may impose but in order to make clear my position in the matter.

Court Martial VerdictJohn MacBride was found guilty and sentenced to death by shooting. This sentence was confirmed by General Maxwell. At 3.47am on 5 May 1916, John MacBride was shot in the former stonebreaker’s yard at Kilmainham Prison. His remains were later buried in Arbour Hill Cemetery.

Con Colbert



Born in 1888, Colbert was a native of Limerick. Prior to the Easter Rising he had been an active member of the republican movement, joining both Fianna Éireann and the Irish Volunteers. A dedicated pioneer, Colbert was known not to drink or smoke. As the captain of F Company of the Fourth Battalion, Colbert was in command at the Marrowbone Lane distillery when it was surrendered on Sunday, 30 April 1916.

Described by General Sir John Maxwell as:

This man was one of the most active members of the Sinn Fein organisation. He was a associate with all the leaders and took a prominent part in the organisation of the rebel army in which he held the rank of Captain. He was armed at the time of his surrender and came from the neighbourhood of houses from which heavy fighting had taken place earlier in the day.

Con Colbert was tried by Field General Courts Martial on 4 May 1916.

Court Martial ProceedingsThe members of the courts martial were Colonel D. Sapte (President), Major W.R. James and Major D.B. Frew.

Con Colbert was charged with "Taking part in an armed rebellion and in the waging of war against His Majesty the King, such act being of such a nature as to be calculated to be prejudicial to the Defence of the Realm and being done with the intension and for the purpose of assisting the enemy."

The 1st witness was Major J.A. Armstrong who stated

On 30 April 1916 I was present at Bride Street and Patrick's Park where the British troops were fired upon. The accused was one of a party which surrendered about 5pm. He was dressed in a Volunteer Captain's uniform and was armed. These officers were armed with pistols or revolvers. These men who surrendered came from the direction in which firing had taken place.

Con Colbert did not call any witnesses in his defence but made the following statement:

I have nothing to say.

Court Martial VerdictCon Colbert was found guilty and sentenced to death by shooting. This sentence was confirmed by General Maxwell. Between 3.45 and 4.05am on 8 May 1916, Con Colbert was shot in the former stonebreaker’s yard at Kilmainham Prison. His remains were later buried in Arbour Lane Cemetery.

Michael Mallin



A silk weaver by trade, Mallin was born in Dublin in 1874. Mallin was a silk weaver by trade, an union organiser (being Secretary of the Silk Weavers' Union from 1909) and a shop owner. However, due to poverty the shop was forced to close in 1913. Along with Countess Markievicz, he commanded a small contingent of the Irish Citizen Army, of which he was Chief of Staff, taking possession of St. Stephen’s Green and the Royal College of Surgeons. General Sir John

Maxwell described Michael Mallin as

This man was second-in-command of the Larkinite or Citizen Army with which organisation had had been connected since its inception. He was in command of the rebels who occupied Stephen's Green and the College of Surgeons. At these places serious encounters took place and there were many casualties both amongst the military and civilians. He surrendered on 30 April 1916 and was accompanied by a body of 109 rebels all of whom were armed.

Michael Mallin was tried by Field General Courts Martial on 3 May 1916.

Court Martial ProceedingsThe members of the courts martial were Colonel E.W.S.K. Maconchy (President), Lieutenant-Colonel Bent and Major F.W. Woodward. At his trial, Michael Mallin faced two charges to which he pleaded not guilty:
  • " Took part in an armed rebellion and in the waging of war against His Majesty the King, such act being of such a nature as to be calculated to be prejudicial to the Defence of the Realm and being done with the intension and for the purpose of assisting the enemy."
  • "Did attempt to cause disaffection among the civilian population of His Majesty."
The 1st Witness was No. C212 Police Constable John O'Connell (Dublin Metropolitan Police) who stated

I know the prisoner Michael Mallin. There is a paper called "The Workers Republic" in which it has been stated that the prisoner is Chief of the Staff of the Citizen Army. I have known the prisoner about 9 or 10 months. I have seen him marching with the Citizen Army and he has marched with James Connolly and the Countess Markievicz and has led them in company with James Connolly.

When cross-examined by Mallin the witness said that he did not know whether the prisoner was in command when marching with the Citizen Army. I never saw him as a drill instructor or a band instructor. I never heard him make any speech at all. I have only seen it in the paper that the prisoner was Chief of the Staff of the Citizen Army.

When asked by the court's President to explain the relationship between the Citizen Army and the Irish Volunteers the witness said that the Citizen Army and the Irish Volunteers are two distinct bodies. The Citizen Army is under the control of James Connolly. There is a slight difference in the uniform of the two armies.

The 2nd Witness was No. C128 Police Constable C. Butler (Dublin Metropolitan Police) who stated I know the prisoner now before the Court and have known him for 6 or 8 months. I have seen him marching with the Citizen Army wearing the uniform in which he is now dressed. On one or two occasions he wore a revolver on his waist belt. He marched with James Connolly at the head of the Army and also with the Countess of Markievicz. I saw him on Easter Monday about 11.50 am he was in front of Liberty Hall dressed as he is now. He seemed to be busy generally organising the Citizen Army and there was a large crowd present.

When asked by the accused what he was doing, the witness stated that he led a section across the footbridge in the direction of St. Stephen's Green and the College of Surgeons. The witness also stated that the accused appeared to be on friendly terms with the police present at the scene.

The 3rd witness was Captain H.E. Wheeler who stated

I was on duty on 30th April outside the College of Surgeons. A body of prisoners surrendered to me between 12.30 p.m. and 1 p.m. The prisoner and the Countess of Markievicz came out of a side door of the College. The prisoner was carrying a white flag and was unarmed but the Countess was armed. The prisoner came forward and saluted and said he wished to surrender and this is the Countess Markievicz. He surrendered and stated he was the Commandant of the garrison. I took over the garrison which consisted of prisoner, Countess Markievicz, 109 men and 10 women. I found them in the College and they laid down their arms under my directions.

In his defence, Michael Mallin stated

I am a silk weaver by trade and have been employed by the Transport Union as band instructor. During my instruction of these bands they became part of the Citizen Army and from this I was asked to become a drill instructor. I had no commission whatever in the Citizen Army. I was never taken into the confidence of James Connolly. I was under the impression we were going out for manoeuvres on Sunday but something altered the arrangements and the manoeuvres were postponed till Monday. I had verbal instructions from James Connolly to take 36 men to St. St. Stephen's Green and to report to the Volunteer officer there. Shortly after my arrival at St. St. Stephen's Green the firing started and the Countess of Markievicz ordered me to take command of the men as I had been so long associated with them. I felt I could not leave them and from that time I joined the rebellion. I made it my business to save all officers and civilians who were brought in to St. Stephen's Green. I gave explicit orders to the men to make no offensive movements and I prevented them attacking the Shelbourne Hotel. I also indignantly repudiate any idea of assisting Germany

The 1st Witness produced in Mallin's defence was Mr L.J. Kettle who stated

The prisoner prevented my death by shooting. I was treated with every possible consideration and also I saw he did the same for any other prisoners who were brought in.

When cross-examined by the prosecution, the witness said that he had been taken prisoner on Monday afternoon 24th April and was taken first to Stephen's Green and Mallin appeared to be in command. I heard a good deal of firing but actually did not see the firing myself. The witness then added that although he could have been released at anytime but was finally released after the surrender.

Court Martial VerdictMichael Mallin was found guilty of the 1st and not guilty of the 2nd charge, and was sentenced to death by shooting. This sentence was confirmed by General Maxwell. Between 3.45 and 4.05am on 8 May 1916, Michael Mallin was shot in the former stonebreaker’s yard at Kilmainham Prison. His remains were later buried in Arbour Hill Cemetery.
Seán Heuston




Sean Heuston was born in Dublin on 21 February 1891, the son of a clerk; he was responsible for the organisation of Fianna Éireann in Limerick. Along with Con Colbert, Heuston was involved in the education of the schoolboys at Scoil Éanna, organising drill and musketry exercises. A section of the First Battalion of the Volunteers, under the leadership of Heuston, occupied the Mendicity Institute on south of the Liffey, holding out there for two days. He was executed on 8 May 1916. Heuston Railway station in Dublin is named after him.

Like Con Colbert, Sean Heuston was educated at the Christian Brothers' School, North Richmond Street, Dublin. After becoming 16 years' old in 1907, Sean Heuston joined the Great Southern & Western Railway Company as a clerk. After six years with the company, Heuston transferred to the Traffic Manager's Office in Dublin's Kingsbridge (now Heuston) Rail Station.


Described by General Sir John Maxwell as

This man was in command of the Mendicity Institute, Usher's Island. One British Officer and nine men were killed by the fire from the building which had to be carried by assault. Twenty-three rebels were captured in it amongst them this man, and large stores of revolver and rifle ammunitions and bombs were found. Orders and despatches were also discovered showing that this man was in constant communication with the leaders. In all of these despatches he described himself and was described as Captain.

Sean Heuston, W. O'Dea, P. Kelly and J. Crenigan were tried together by Field General Courts Martial on 4 May 1916.

Court Martial ProceedingsThe members of the courts martial were Colonel E.W.S.K. Maconchy (President), Lieutenant-Colonel Bent and Major F.W. Woodward.

Seán Heuston was charged with "did taking part in an armed rebellion and in the waging of war against His Majesty the King, such act being of such a nature as to be calculated to be prejudicial to the Defence of the Realm and being done with the intension and for the purpose of assisting the enemy."

All four defendants pleaded not guilty.

The 1st witness was Captain A.W. MacDermot (7th Royal Dublin Fusiliers) who stated

On 26 April I was present when the Mendacity Institution was taken by assault by a party of the 10th Royal Dublin Fusiliers. Twenty-three men surrendered on that occasion. I identify the four prisoners as having been in the body of men who surrendered. They left their arms except their revolvers in the Mendicity Institute when they surrendered. Some of them still wore revolvers. One officer of the 10th Royal Dublin Fusiliers was killed and 9 men wounded by fire from this Institute on the 24th April. I searched the building when they surrendered. I found several rifles, several thousand rounds of ammunition for both revolvers and rifles. I found 6 or 7 bombs charged and with fuses in them ready for use.

I found the following papers: An order signed by James Connolly, one of the signatories to the Irish Republic Proclamation, directing "Capt. Houston" (Sic) to "Seize the Mendicity at all costs." Also papers detailing men for various duties in the Mendicity Institute. All these papers are headed "Army of the Irish Republic.” Also two message books signed by Heuston "Capt.” One contains copies of messages sent to "Comdt. General Connolly" giving particulars of the situation in the Institute. The other message book contains copies of messages commencing on the 22nd April two days before the outbreak. One message contains a reference to MacDonagh who is stated to have just left Heuston. Another is a message to "all members of D Coy. 1st Bn." stating that the parade for the 23rd is cancelled and all rumours are to be ignored. Another message dated the 23rd states "I hope we will be able to do better next time."

Capt. MacDermot then testified that Heuston commanded the party of men who surrendered.

The 2nd witness was Lieutenant W.P. Connolly (10th Royal Dublin Fusiliers) stated

I was present when 23 men surrendered on the 26th April at the Mendicity Institute. I identify the four prisoners before the court as being amongst them. The leader was J.J. Heuston. I was present when the troops were fired on from the Mendicity Institute on the 24th April, when Lieutenant G.A. Neilan was killed and 6 men wounded to my knowledge. Heuston was without a coat when he surrendered and also had no hat on. He was not in the uniform of the Irish Volunteers. I was present when the building was searched and found arms and ammunition in it and also the documents now before the court. Among the arms there were some old German Mausers. Among the ammunition there were two cardboard boxes of "Spange" German ammunition. When cross-examined by Sean Heuston, Lieutenant Connolly was not able to say exactly where, in the building, he had found the message books.

In his defence W.O'Dea stated

I was perfectly ignorant of what was going to occur. I understood it was an ordinary route march when I was called out as we had been told for some time previously that the best equipped Company was to get a prize at the Easter Manoeuvres. It was to have taken place on Easter Sunday but was postponed. I do not know why it was postponed. I turned out in full uniform but I took it off when we were about to surrender.

In his defence Sean Heuston stated

The message in the notebook produced saying "I hope we will be able to do better next time" is not mine.

In his defence P. Kelly stated

I did not know anything about the rebellion beforehand or what I was coming out for. I came out because I was asked to. I thought it was for manoeuvres. I did not fire any shots.

In his defence J. Crenigan stated

I did not know what I was called out for. I though it was for manoeuvres. I am 16 years old.

Court Martial VerdictThe court found all four defendants guilty. Heuston, O'Dea and Kelly were sentenced to death by shooting. Crenigan was sentenced to two years' imprisonment, with a recommendation for mercy on account of his age. General Maxwell commuted the death sentences on O'Dea and Kelly to three years' imprisonment. The death sentence passed on Heuston was confirmed by General Maxwell. Between 3.45 and 4.05am on 8 May 1916, Sean Heuston was shot in the former stonebreaker’s yard at Kilmainham Prison. His remains were later buried in Arbour Hill Cemetery.

Roger Casement

Roger Casement: Born in 1864 in Dublin, Casement was knighted for his services to the British consulate. He campaigned tirelessly to expose the cruelty inflicted on native workers in the Belgian Congo in 1904, and again in Brazil from 1911-1912, causing an international sensation with his reportage. Casement had become a member of the Gaelic League in 1904, beginning at that time to write nationalist articles under the pseudonym ‘Seán Bhean Bhocht’. He retired from the British consular service in 1913, after which he joined the Irish Volunteers. Casement was despatched to Germany on account of his experience to raise an Irish Brigade from Irish prisoners of war. He was captured in Kerry in 1916 on Good Friday having returned to Ireland in a German U-Boat. Casement was imprisoned in Pentonville Gaol in London, where he was tried on charges of High Treason. He was hanged on 3 August 1916, the only leader of the Rising to be executed outside of Ireland.

A propaganda medal similar to the Lusitania medal produced by Goetz German on the execution of Casement. Casement was executioner was John Ellis.


Thomas Kent
Thomas Kent: Born in 1865, Kent was arrested at his home in Castlelyons, Co. Cork following a raid by the Royal Irish Constabulary on 22 April 1916, during which his brother Richard was fatally wounded. It had been his intention to travel to Dublin to participate in the Rising, but when the mobilisation order for the Irish Volunteers was cancelled on Easter Sunday he assumed that the Rising had been postponed, leading him to stay at home. He was executed at Cork Detention Barracks on 9 May 1916 following a court martial. In 1966 the railway station in Cork was renamed Kent Station in his honour.

Richard Kent
Brother of the above, lived at Bawnard Castlelyons County Cork with his mother. On the 2nd of May after the death of Constable Rowe the Military arrived at his home, the family surrendered, Richard attempted to escape and was shot, he died in Fermoy Military hospital. He had been arrested several times for his activities with the Land League and was well known in Gaelic Athletic circles. His other two brothers, David and William, were charged with the murder of Head Constable Rowe. Both were tried by Court Martial, William was acquitted and David sentenced to death, the death sentence was commuted to five years penal servitude.